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21

In general, no, it is not inappropriate. Scientific research can take many forms, some of which could have negative effects on people. Pharmaceutical research, for example, follows a tightly controlled set of steps in researching a drug and getting it approved and marketed. You can't just brew something up in your garage and start dosing people with it. We'...


18

Your question is a revival of the classic debate between Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. Should we obey even corrupt governments, or should we revolt and create a new government? From the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: To have a political obligation is to have a moral duty to obey the laws of one's country or state. On that point there is almost ...


9

Race is a social construct, although one loosely based around some biological realities. Consider the following: "Black/African" is usually identified as a monolithic racial category. But, genetically speaking, Africa is more diverse than the rest of the world combined. The latest scientific theories confirm that all Asians and Europeans are descendents ...


9

The question is how much well-informed citizens need to be to exercise their democratic rights. The answer depends on theories of democracy. The duty of citizens to be well-informed can be very demanding or not demanding at all. Some theories even require moral duty not to vote. I explain these three views in the following. J.S. Mill's theory can be argued ...


8

Most folks you are pointing out on the right, from Mussolini's notion that each race has its own truth to Karl Rove's dismissal of 'fact-based people' are not really post-modernists, they are relativists in a degenerate way which is actually based in the realpolitik of how easy intellectual manipulation is for a cult of power in an atmosphere with too many ...


8

Welcome, Mimikyu Your second and third paragraphs concern only a remote contingency, as you acknowledge. They are, I think it's safe to say, practically discountable. The position appears to be that you regard the IDF as necessary for the defence of Israel. However, your not serving will not put Israel at risk but it will very likely involve you in (what ...


7

Freud's "Thoughts for the Times on War and Death" might be a relevant read - it's fairly short and deals with contemporary political struggles. Freud saw psychoanalysis as a way to improve life for individuals, and applied its methods on a societal scale as well, for example in Civilization and Its Discontents. His view of the relationship between politics ...


6

But it is much more a part of corruption to hold and manipulate debts than to release them. Debts are more often paid off by the wealthy and held over the poor as threats. So it decreases the power of the corrupt if history is not allowed to accumulate over time. To limit the accumulation of debt, there was once a tradition in Jewish law to allow debts to ...


6

One might cite as not inherently violent the Faisceau in inter-war (1918-39) France. Les Faisceau The following extract will take us into the subject: Fascism, violence and storm troopers: in the popular mind the three are inseparable. The same could be said, on a more sophisticated plane, of the scholarly discourse on fascism. In an area in ...


5

Christianity has often been promoted by oppressors, who perceive it as promoting meekness and compliance. However, there is a radical subversiveness to Christianity which has also made it the foundation of many movements promoting the interests of the poor and oppressed --for instance the American Civil Rights movement of the 1960's or the social justice ...


5

I admittedly lack a solid grounding in philosophy and likely some problems with postmodernist thought escape me. I am however one of those leftists who has no huge, general problem with all of postmodernists thought so I'll try to answer. The way I see it, postmodernism is at it's core not the ideology that "anything goes" (though I'm sure you can point me ...


5

The rule that the article appears to be concerned with is Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OA-2018-0259 and has this as part of the summary. This document proposes a regulation intended to strengthen the transparency of EPA regulatory science. The proposed regulation provides that when EPA develops regulations, including regulations for which the public is likely to ...


5

Machiavelli found the "enemy of my enemy is my friend" advice to be cheap and short-sighted, at least for a ruler. It is not that he was concerned with moral virtues, but rather he saw shifting alliances as ineffective in the long run, and fostering loyalties and respect as more effective. Better yet, converting enemies into friends (Ch.20 of the Prince). So ...


4

As ChrisW states, in the English version it's "Trespasses" not "Debts" so it seems it's more about offence than actual debt. I think there's a possible ambiguity of "Forgive" here - it could be open to interpretation. To Forgive someone isn't necessarily the same as just ignoring their crime/offence against you. It's to allow them to redeem themselves in ...


4

There is a very large difference between "making rules for science" and "People who are not scientists are telling us how scientific synthesis and analysis should be done." Do scientists need some form of regulation? Sure. The material covered in courses on medical ethics will let you know exactly how bad things can get when there is no oversight. There's ...


3

Society naturally divides into authoritarians and liberals. The reason is, everyone starts out as authoritarian, following instruction from parents and teachers. (Authoritarian does not mean being bossy or socially dominant (SD); it means following authority.) Later in life, upon entering adulthood, some people self-actualise, individuate, start thinking ...


3

Here is a quote ascribed to Mussolini by Renzo De Felice, Mussolini il rivoluzionario, Einaudi 2004. From wikipedia (italian): Il superuomo, ecco la grande creazione nietzscheana! Quale impulso segreto, quale interna rivolta hanno suggerito al solitario professore di lingue antiche dell'Università di Basilea questa superba nozione? Forse il taedium vitae, ...


3

One current philosopher and theologian, Robert Barron, would dispute this claim by looking at what is meant by the word "freedom." Freedom, in Kaczynski eyes is the ability to do whatever one pleases. However, another dictionary definition for the word "freedom" is "familiarity or openness in speech or behavior." As Barron often points out, familiarity or ...


3

In Latin the word is debita ("debt"). In English it's "our trespasses", in French it's "nos offenses". So I think it's "forgive those who offend against us: those who aggress us". In other words I think it's a continuation of pacifist philosophy i.e. Turning the other cheek. As for whether that's colonialism, a principle of non-violence apparently ...


3

In a way it is. Bear in mind that Jesus lived and taught in a country that was occupied. A lot of people hoped that the Messiah would be the one to do something about it. But as it turned out Jesus rejected that idea by which he alienate quite a lot of people. Once he was asked how he feels about the taxes the Romans were collecting - basically his answer ...


3

No 'categorical ban on paternalism' in Mill - first error It is clear that in general Mill rejects a paternalist relation between the state with its power, and the person with her/ his autonomy and individuality. But Mill also supports both weak and strong paternalism, in senses distinguished below. The liberty principle does not encourage paternalism - ...


3

There can be different responses to your question, depending on which definition from the Oxford dictionary you go with. Based on the first definition: "The practice or principle of giving a group priority over each individual in it". "Collectivism" isn't synonymous with "Communism" or "Socialism" nor is it antynomous with "Capitalism" - all of which ...


3

Politics from Greek: πολιτικός politikos, definition "of, for, or relating to citizens". See Aristotle's Politics, 1252a1: Every state is as we see a sort of partnership, and every partnership is formed with a view to some good (since all the actions of all mankind are done with a view to what they think to be good). It is therefore evident that, while ...


3

Well this is a question with an interesting cast of characters who come into play and I don't know if I'm up to the task of sketching it out completely, perhaps all I can do is sketch out a little of it. What does the end of history mean? Maybe I can give you a little of the history of the end of history, or at least point you in that direction as I ...


3

Reason, not logic; logic can be a type of positivism that ignores the concrete reality which is the life of the people. Logic can be a place to hide from the real. It is all so simple, the principle of non-contradiction, just like math; but try to apply to it to people! Capitalism is full of contradictions, and so the life of the people is full of ...


3

Maybe I'm the wrong person to answer your question because my gounding in philosophy is not that great, maybe I'm the right one because I likely share some of your political outlook ... One of the posits of postmodernist thought is, I believe, that nothing has meaning per se, meaning is always assigned, negotiated etc. And so meaning can be destroyed. And ...


3

Welcome, Abhed Manocha. The thesis The first point to note is that when Aristotle says that the human being is a political animal (zoon politikon - Politics I.i) he does not mean merely that we are gregarious, inclined to live in groups and to have some kind of political system. His idea is much more specific. He means that human flourishing or the good ...


3

You are comparing across the centuries two philosophers with different preconceptions. But I think I detect the core of your question; I offer the following answer. Textual references are to Aristotle, The Politics, Sinclair, T. A. (Translator); Saunders, Trevor J. (Revised by). Published by Penguin Random House. ISBN 10: 0140444211 ISBN 13: 9780140444216. ...


3

Domestically, fascism is inherently oppressive — it always seeks to cement differential rights and liberties for its core group, over, above, and at the expense of the rights and liberties of other groups — but while oppression always relies on force of one sort or another, it does not necessarily involve outright violence. In practice, fascists have ...


2

Derrida was criticised for not being political enough, or so he declared in the introduction of Spectres of Marxism; so he wrote said book; but I suppose a book is not a party-political manifesto. Given that Derrida was born in Algeria; and spent his formative years there as a pied-noir; and which later went through a war of decolonialisation, he says ...


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