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What the issues are, and what "effectively solving" them means is largely in the eye of the beholder, people decide among interpretations largely based on their personal core beliefs about realism, determinism, the role of science and the like. Quantum Bayesianism, with its mix of realism about physics with anti-realism about the structure of quantum theory, ...


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Probability measures the Hypothesis' chances to occur/repeat as predicted . Its a tool to validate or not the need (investment of time and resources) needed for a full "cycle" of the scientific method; that seeks the truth .(upgrading hypostesis into a theories as a result is the closest human knowledge gets to the truth in a given point in time) Of course ...


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I would point at two aspects of physics. The Shannon entropy or signal-to-noise ratio of a communication channel, turned out to be directly equivalent to thermodynamic entropy. It represents our lack of knowledge about a system. We can do precise calculations about changes in this, without any deep grasp of total information in a system. Estimating errors, ...


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There is a field that adresses your concern, and it's called Management. Scientific management to be more precise. It involves collecting data to make statistics and then make rational decisions. It also involves modelling and testing prototypes in order to get the closest approximation we can get to the real world/full scale situation. Under how much ...


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