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It's an interesting question. Others will be better able to answer, but I would note that the proper evolutionary model here may be punctuated equilibrium or, more pertinently, Kuhn's "Structure of Scientific Revolutions," with its near-random paradigm shifts. A truly authoritative work, such as Aristotle's logic or Euclid's geometry will hold sway ...


4

I'm not sure that there is anything that's exactly what you need but you might consult: Locke's Ideas of Mind and Body (Routledge Studies in Seventeenth-Century Philosophy) Han-Kyul Kim ISBN 10: 1138241792 / ISBN 13: 9781138241794 Published by Routledge 2019-07-04, 2019 The Hidden Roots of Critical Psychology: Understanding the Impact of Locke, Shaftesbury ...


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The quote appears at the beginning of Chapter VI of James's Principles of Psychology, and is preceded by a sentence that gives important context: "The reader who found himself swamped with too much metaphysics in the last chapter will have a still worse time of it in this one, which is exclusively metaphysical. Metaphysics means nothing but an ...


3

As a mere psychological occurrence, an emotion cannot be right or wrong. Hume caught this point when he observed that as 'original existences', mere psychological states or happenings, emotions (or 'passions' as he called them) are not 'representative' - reportive or descriptive - of any state of affairs and therefore cannot be true or false, right or wrong. ...


2

Short Answer But can emotions be “right” or “wrong”? Yes, depending on one's metaphysics. Long Answer In Catholic theology, the venial and mortal sins specifically list emotions that are both wrong and forbidden. Indeed, a case can be made that 'lust' is arguably the most religiously regulated emotional impulse. While not recognized as emotions in the same ...


2

Sociology has three main theories, which do not refute each other but compensate for the lackluster parts of each other: Structural functionalism, in which society is proposed to have structures which have certain functions, which has a methodology that is akin to natural sciences. (Comte, Spencer) Conflict theory, which argues social action can be ...


1

Psychologism is a philosophical position, according to which psychology plays a central role in grounding or explaining some other, non-psychological type of fact or law. John Locke seems an eminent philosopher explicitly argued for it according to reference here: The Oxford English Dictionary defines psychologism as: "The view or doctrine that a ...


1

I'd start with an evolutionary account. AO Wilson, the leading biologist on social insects, developed and extended the idea of eusociality, to account using multi-level selection for the emergence of hive organisms. And his account also applies to some extent to prairie dogs, wolf packs, naked mole rats, and human tribes through the majority of our evolution ...


1

I would like to provide an answer based both on my admittedly superficial knowledge of Jung's theory and pure exegesis. It should be taken with a pinch of salt insofar as I am not an expert on Jung myself, but only discussed his theory with someone who built his doctoral thesis on the book. I think it is crucial to include the two sentences prior to the ones ...


1

Think of "reductionism does not imply constructionism" as a rough corollary to "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts." Reductionism is often used (usefully) to identify necessary components of some high-level object or event. But identifying necessary components of a high-level object or event does not imply that these ...


1

Metaphysics has come to mean what can be known about the first principles of things through introspection, in the way mathematical idealists consider mathematics to be. Ontology, the nature of being, coming to be, and change, has always been a central metaphysical topic. Dreams have been a topic for philosophy since Zuangzhi in the 4th C. BC, who wondered if ...


1

In the chess context it is instructive to read about the computational methods, especially weighted tree searches, and evolutionary algorithms. Convolutional neural networks are a powerful tool which seem to mimic methods found in brains. They have a kind of hierarchic structure, say used in vision a layer might be scanning for lines, then pass up ...


1

This seems a reasonable and convincing argument. However, saying that knowledge is hard in the case of chess seems not quite the situation. It don't believe that any one human being could imagine all possible games. We might want to argue that this is at least possible in principle in the precise sense that we know all the rules of the game. But this is ...


1

The problem is the final goal. Good and bad (right and wrong) depend on the goal. If I want to die, poison is good. If I want to continue living, poison is bad. In case of considering that our ultimate goal is survival (not only existence, this instant, but also persistence in the long term, that is, to exist forever) (some consider it debatable), any good ...


1

If I understand what you're asking, your last sentence could be condensed to this: "Can a simple conversation enhance a person's mental health?" The answer appears to be YES. Isn't that why people consult psychoanalysts? People who are in great pain also often turn to religion, and many of them are rewarded with a lessening of depression. People ...


1

The reason that Virtue Ethicists do not consider the experimental results to be refutations is because they do not actually test virtue ethics. Virtue ethics does not predict that virtuous people will always behave virtuously, but that virtuous character habits increase the frequency of virtuous actions from the virtuous person. That people are more likely ...


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It is a sensible point to argue that valid moral theorizing is constrained by empirical findings, though to what extent I do not know. Surely normative claims hold against empirical shortcomings, but they become invalid upon demanding the impossible. Virtue ethics would not seem to be in denial, then, as the reported findings ('weak character', 'no character'...


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This is non sequitur. From "Every mental state can exist in some universe", it does not follow that "Any delusional mental state has in fact a real cause in at least one universe". At most, you can infer "There is at least one universe where my mental state is to see an imaginary monster". But obviously you're not in that ...


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I think you need to take more steps back. What are laws? Can there be absolute objectivity, or what limits are there on approaching this? Nancy Cartwright in 'How The Laws Of Physics Lie' demonstrates that truths are about abstractions, and can only be as true as the given abstraction or system of them, are valid. I would contend objectivity is unreachable, ...


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