Since, UPSC CSE has Philosophy as an optional. You can check out the following resources:
Mitra's IAS(coaching institute) Indian philosophy pdf notes. They are lucid and to that point.
Check out the e-Pathshala portal of Ministry of Education, Govt. of India.
Book recommended:A critical survey of Indian Philosophy by Chandradhar Sharma.
Analytic Philosophy: An Anthology ed. Martinich and Sosa includes the following seminal papers:
Part I :Philosophy of Language.
1 “On Sense and Reference”(Gottlob Frege).
2 “Thought”(Gottlob Frege.
3 “On Denoting”(Bertrand Russell).
4 “On Referring”(P. F. Strawson).
5 “Meaning”(H. P. Grice).
6 “Truth and Meaning”(Donald Davidson).
7 “Identity and Necessity”(...
There might be some connection to Aristotle's rhetorical concepts here, except divided into the four separate discourses, which each have their own dominant term; the field of knowledge or expertise invoked, the one who invokes this knowledge, and who it is that they reason in the place of (perhaps indicated by what is on the right side of the arrow). In ...
Firstly, the general branch in philosophy you're seeking is Ontology. Ontology is the branch of metaphysics that explores the reality of things in the world.
Now the specific type of ontology you describe here seems like some sort of a hierarchical critical/objective-idealism. For example, consider a Kantian framework where the things that exist depend on ...
On the basis of a full axiom of comprehension, Weber shows that there is a set of all sets, which he denotes V, and a set of all ordinals, which he denotes On. He uses von Neumann’s definition of a cardinal as the smallest ordinal equinumerous with the set. From this it follows that On is itself a cardinal number, since it is the least of its size. In fact, ...