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1 vote

At what point in the history of mathematics, and why, did mathematicians come to say "A implies B" to mean "not A or B"?

I just found this on Wikipedia which I think relates to a lot of your questions: C. I. Lewis took issue with Russell’s idea of material implication, and sought to amend it with the use of modal logic: ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
1 vote

Does the universe include everything, or merely everything that exists?

I am surprised no one has mentioned Popper's and Penrose's 3 universes. Popper's 3 Worlds From wikipedia World 1 The realm of states and processes as studied by the natural sciences. These include ...
Rushi's user avatar
  • 4,052
0 votes

Does the universe include everything, or merely everything that exists?

Cogito, we should abandon the old idea of divvying up the world into things that exist and things that don't exist. Instead go Meinong's way and construct new categories for *"exists" e.g. ...
Hudjefa's user avatar
  • 4,409
0 votes

Does the universe include everything, or merely everything that exists?

Following on from @AnoE, you also need to define the word "unicorn". During the renaissance, collectors would buy unicorn horns, which were, in fact, the tusks of narwhals. We could argue ...
Simon Crase's user avatar
0 votes

Does the universe include everything, or merely everything that exists?

It is well possible that the universe is literally infinite.1 In that case, literally everything and anything that is possible — however improbable — also exists, including things nobody ever thought ...
Peter - Reinstate Monica's user avatar
0 votes

Does the universe include everything, or merely everything that exists?

When you say, "exists", it seems in your question that exist implies materially exists, as in, you can sense it with the 5 basic human senses. Hence you get answers that respond to material ...
esmithius's user avatar
1 vote

Does the universe include everything, or merely everything that exists?

I would argue that the greek concept of universe encompasses platonic concepts, which could be said to exist in the same sense that meromorphic functions on the complex plane exist. But beyond that ...
UnkemptPanda's user avatar
0 votes

Does the universe include everything, or merely everything that exists?

Universe = "Cosmos and all within". QUESTION: Does the universe include everything, or merely everything that exists? Do unicorns exist? No. Are unicorns "within the cosmos"? No....
Alistair Riddoch's user avatar
1 vote

Does the universe include everything, or merely everything that exists?

The existence of the word "multiverse" implies that there is more than one universe, in which case the universe cannot contain everything there is, even without considering mythical beasts.
Dikran Marsupial's user avatar
1 vote

Does the universe include everything, or merely everything that exists?

There's two competing definitions of universe. 1 is everything that exists, period. Another is, everything that exists in this same space-time as us. The second definition is what many people mean ...
TKoL's user avatar
  • 3,692
5 votes

Does the universe include everything, or merely everything that exists?

The key to questions like this is to define what every word really means to you. Then you check the definitions against each other using some logic you are familiar and that you deem appropriate; and ...
AnoE's user avatar
  • 3,084
3 votes

Does the universe include everything, or merely everything that exists?

Well, one could define universe as whatever he wants it to be, but when we talk about the universe we usually think of a physical universe, something like : all existing matter and space considered as ...
Ioannis Paizis's user avatar
2 votes

Does the universe include everything, or merely everything that exists?

Nothing exists permanently. Things arise , change while persisting and vanish. Universe contains all those things which arise or had arisen in the past or will arise in the future. It includes both ...
SacrificialEquation's user avatar
15 votes

Does the universe include everything, or merely everything that exists?

The universe is defined as all that exists. "Unicorn" is a fictitious animal. It is a name without a referent. The name and the concept of a unicorn exist in the universe, but a ...
Jo Wehler's user avatar
  • 34.7k
3 votes

How to Study Aristotles Ethics

You will be very interested to read modern accounts of Aristotles ethics, which will situate his ethics against other views, say Kantian. After virtue should in particular give a feel for how ...
emesupap's user avatar
  • 2,452
1 vote

How to Study Aristotles Ethics

Good luck! Aristotle an Kant are two of the most influential philosophers in history, by my thinking, precisely because their body of work is rich and open to interpretation. Besides the SEP there are ...
J D's user avatar
  • 29.2k
2 votes

Is philosophy science or humanities?

Philosophy is not readily categorisable according to this, from Heidegger's What Is a Thing (1935), part 1, pages 2–4: a little story is handed down which Plato has preserved in the Theaetetus (174 a....
Chris Degnen's user avatar
  • 6,284
2 votes

Is philosophy science or humanities?

Science is a branch of philosophy. Both science and philosophy study our world, but science is doing it using scientific method, while philosophy is not restricted to it. Scientific method is itself ...
Anixx's user avatar
  • 620
2 votes
Accepted

Is pluralism the correct philosophical interpretation of probability?

I would say that it is. Even within Bayesianism there are interpretations of probability that are for different purposes and are not directly exchangeable. In subjectivist Bayesianism, a probability ...
Dikran Marsupial's user avatar
0 votes

Is philosophy science or humanities?

First, philosophy covers two main branches: physics (experience, measurable facts, perception by the senses), and metaphysics (ideas, subjective facts, reason). Science deals exclusively with physical ...
RodolfoAP's user avatar
  • 7,737
4 votes

Is philosophy science or humanities?

Science was originally called natural philosophy. For Greek, Roman and pre-Enlightenment philosophers, there was no conceptual difference between speculation about the physical makeup of the universe ...
Graham's user avatar
  • 2,387
3 votes

Is philosophy science or humanities?

Probably depends on the time, the place and the sub-domain of philosophy. Apparently the medieval canon of academic disciplines often just included: medicine, theology, legal systems and some "...
haxor789's user avatar
  • 6,801
15 votes
Accepted

Is philosophy science or humanities?

According to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humanities philosophy is generally considered to belong to humanities and not to science. Each demarcation of this type is to a certain degree arbitrary. In ...
Jo Wehler's user avatar
  • 34.7k
0 votes

Is pluralism the correct philosophical interpretation of probability?

Pluralism is accepted by some philosophers while others hope for a unified theory of probability . However , fundamentally, probability remains defined as the measure of likelihood or chance that a ...
SacrificialEquation's user avatar
3 votes

Is there a difference between "true" and "real"?

Typically, "truth" is used to describe propositions, while "real" is used to describe the existence of a thing. If X is "real" then the proposition "X exists" ...
Lowri's user avatar
  • 1,168
-1 votes

Could mathematical truths have been otherwise?

In all conceivable universes governed by physical laws mathematical laws also work. But one can conceive a universe (flow of qualia) where mathematical laws do not work. For example, a universe that ...
Anixx's user avatar
  • 620
0 votes

Recommend an essay, article, entry, author, or branch of philosophy that addresses the futility of arguing for or against free will

One of the members of my philosophy cafe made this claim repeatedly: that there was no practical difference between assuming free will vs. determinism, and therefore it was a pointless debate. I ...
Dcleve's user avatar
  • 14.6k
3 votes

Recommend an essay, article, entry, author, or branch of philosophy that addresses the futility of arguing for or against free will

One such author that I'm surprised no one in this thread mentioned is Immanuel Kant. In the 'Critique of Pure Reason' he states that everything in nature (meaning taking place in space and time) is ...
Dennis Kozevnikoff's user avatar
2 votes

Is there a difference between "true" and "real"?

One amongst many interpretations of the "real" and the "true", posted mainly to show the diversity available. (Since postmodernism the meanings are less rigid.) In the quote below, ...
Chris Degnen's user avatar
  • 6,284
-1 votes

Recommend an essay, article, entry, author, or branch of philosophy that addresses the futility of arguing for or against free will

that the very framework of cause-and-effect we are using to make sense of the idea of freewill has already ruled out its possible existence. Physicalism and body mind monism rule out libertarian free ...
tkruse's user avatar
  • 4,969
6 votes

Recommend an essay, article, entry, author, or branch of philosophy that addresses the futility of arguing for or against free will

If I understand your question, you are asking specifically about philosophers who were inclined to dismiss questions about freedom, rather than to argue about whether there is freedom or not. One such ...
Bumble's user avatar
  • 27.4k
0 votes

Is there a difference between "true" and "real"?

“True” and “real” deal with different aspects of understanding and interacting with the world. “True” concerns with accuracy and validity of statements or beliefs in representing narratives within the ...
SacrificialEquation's user avatar
-1 votes

Is there a difference between "true" and "real"?

Outside any defined scope, you can argue that nothing is true and nothing is real, including God and our reality. But in a more practical circumstance, for example, in the scope of your conciseness, ...
TheMatrix Equation-balance's user avatar
2 votes

Recommend an essay, article, entry, author, or branch of philosophy that addresses the futility of arguing for or against free will

I recommend against the definitions-first approach suggested by Pertti. Instead, list some phenomena or alleged phenomena that "free will" is supposed to be illustrated by, or to help ...
Paul Torek's user avatar
0 votes

Could mathematical truths have been otherwise?

As noted by Ted Wigley, mathematics appears to me to be constructed, not discovered "out there" like quarks, birds, viruses, etc. That is not to say that there are more or less intuitively/...
Annika's user avatar
  • 2,127
3 votes

Recommend an essay, article, entry, author, or branch of philosophy that addresses the futility of arguing for or against free will

IMO the problem of free-will is: How to reconcile our general experience to be the agent of our actions with the causal determinism which is the basic heuristics of science? Approaching this problem ...
Jo Wehler's user avatar
  • 34.7k
5 votes

Recommend an essay, article, entry, author, or branch of philosophy that addresses the futility of arguing for or against free will

Pertti gives some good advice about definitions. What is the exact type of freedom we are arguing for? However, this challenge is not unique to free will but philosophy in general, hence I do not ...
Annika's user avatar
  • 2,127
-3 votes
Accepted

Recommend an essay, article, entry, author, or branch of philosophy that addresses the futility of arguing for or against free will

Arguing for or against free will is futile, pointless and downright impossible to begin with. Free will is not a claim or a theory or a philosophical standpoint. There is no consensus on what the ...
Pertti Ruismäki's user avatar
0 votes

Could mathematical truths have been otherwise?

OP says: Personally, I believe all mathematical truths are necessarily true and could not have failed to be true, but I wonder... Seriously?! One may discuss whether a truth is necessarily or ...
Rushi's user avatar
  • 4,052
1 vote

Could mathematical truths have been otherwise?

This question is profound and has been repeated so many times that I feel that there is desire to find relief in violation of reality which is assumed to be governed by mathematics. Before I turn on ...
SacrificialEquation's user avatar
2 votes

Could mathematical truths have been otherwise?

Your question is way too imprecise. I personally believe that type∈type and obj∈obj and ∃x∈type ∀y∈obj ( y∈x ), where "type" refers the type of all types and "obj" refers to the ...
user21820's user avatar
  • 809
0 votes

Could mathematical truths have been otherwise?

The mathematician Hans Freudenthal may have thought that mathematical truths were necessary - in some sense. He published an amusing book about how we could start communicating with aliens in a galaxy ...
mudskipper's user avatar
  • 1,026
0 votes

Could mathematical truths have been otherwise?

There is not necessarily a strong consensus about this matter even among mathematicians who are also well-versed in philosophy (e.g. Hamkins, Koellner)ℕ. Pluralism at various levels is balanced by a ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
1 vote

Could mathematical truths have been otherwise?

I suspect this answer will give people headaches, but… Mathematics is a reflection of our particular mode of perception and cognition: i.e., we perceive a world containing isolated objects, and thus ...
Ted Wrigley's user avatar
  • 21.3k
2 votes
Accepted

Emergent Behavior: Observer-Constructed or Observer-Independent behavior of systems

You ask: Are there theoretical perspectives that support this observer-centric interpretation of emergent phenomena? If so, which authors should I research to learn more? Undoubtedly yes. In ...
J D's user avatar
  • 29.2k
2 votes

Emergent Behavior: Observer-Constructed or Observer-Independent behavior of systems

This answer will be a criticism of your premise rather than references endorsing it. When you state: The emergent behaviors claimed to be observed in certain phenomena are not inherent to the ...
Dcleve's user avatar
  • 14.6k
0 votes

Emergent Behavior: Observer-Constructed or Observer-Independent behavior of systems

The emergent behaviors claimed to be observed in certain phenomena are not inherent to the phenomena themselves but are artifacts of the mental representations and interpretations of researchers, who ...
RodolfoAP's user avatar
  • 7,737
2 votes

Emergent Behavior: Observer-Constructed or Observer-Independent behavior of systems

The emergent behaviors claimed to be observed in certain phenomena are not inherent to the phenomena themselves but are artifacts of the mental representations and interpretations of researchers, who ...
causative's user avatar
  • 14.8k
7 votes

Is intuitionistic mathematics situated in time?

This seems to have little to do with intuitionism: you happened to pick a statement of the form A ∨ ¬A, but you could instead replace it with the statement of the Riemann hypothesis and conclude that ...
Naïm Favier's user avatar

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