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13

Your problem seems to come about through a misunderstanding of what is oppressive about the situation. The oppression resides not in the task but the lack of choice. Then it is much like any other life choice. Imagine all men are told you have to work in physical labour because your physique is suited to it. Some guys currently choose to work as builders ...


9

There's several ambiguities in your question that an answer needs to address. First, I am going to assume that your uses of "should" refer to moral rather than legal determinations. Otherwise, this isn't going to fit under philosophy. Second, I'm going to answer in terms of applied ethics rather than formal ethical theories. Third, I will following your ...


9

Welcome to this SE, Daniel. I think the problem with the argument is what you are trying to prove: how can I disprove that there exists an inherent privilege (an entitlement) to believe whatever you want? Even Patrick Stokes agrees that people are entitled to their opinions. He writes: If “Everyone’s entitled to their opinion” just means no-one has ...


6

Firstly, what is punishable by law and what is moral are two very different things, and it would be a mistake to conflate the two. While someone may not go to jail for killing an animal, this does not thereby guarantee that it is morally permissible to kill an animal. Going in the other direction, it may be illegal to consume certain substances (for instance)...


6

You've made a LOT of assumptions in your post, and have a pretty big set of seemingly unexamined presuppositions behind your statements that seem to me to need exposition. By saying that the legality of an action is irrelevant to its morality, you claim, unsupported, that morality is entirely detached from legality. This is quite a sweeping assertion! You ...


5

I take the Google quote to be a jab at Russia in terms of homosexuality. But that does raise the question -- what makes something a right and how do we have them? Here, there are several theories that are distinct. First, the basic definition of a right is something that I should be permitted to do or something I can obligate others to do for me. In the ...


5

One concept that I thought is worth mentioning is from Judaism. The idea is that there's a division between cases where "One enjoys and one has not lost"(זה נהנה וזה לא חסר), and cases where "One enjoys and one has lost"(זה נהנה וזה חסר). In cases of downloading copyrighted material, you could argue that it comes under the first category, since you're not ...


5

Some of this obviously depends on how one defines "work." There are obvious examples in history of people that are considered "virtuous" who didn't have a job that provided them with income, if that's what you mean. Examples include Socrates (who instead of "working" went around Athens asking people questions) and various religious ascetics such as ...


4

In order to answer this question as stated in the penultimate paragraph, we must first show how a lowering of the burden of proof to a preponderance of evidence constitutes an infringement of the presumption of innocence. Paul Roberts argues that there are three reasons for this (but I only see two and will present them as such for ease). The first is that ...


4

No law-book includes the right to break the law stipulated in the law code. But there may exist law codes on different levels of a hierachy. Here the law of one level may contradict the law from a different level. In general, law of a higher level breaks the law of the lower level. So far the principle of positive right. The situation becomes more ...


3

The question seems to boil down to this... Is an AI the kind of entity that would qualify for basic human rights? What qualifies humans for rights? The arguments I've seen include rationality and sentience, so let's look at those. Rationality doesn't hold up as even the severely mentally impaired have rights. While their rights may seem curtailed (...


3

The thing is that Kant (I don't know enough about Fichte to be arguing his case) would not agree with your third premise, i.e. that "violating the law is just if and only if the law is unjust". Justice, as a term of rights [Recht] is established by the implementation of a legal situation. As not having one is worse that having a bad one, revolution is ...


3

Are there intrinsic human rights? Only if your moral point of reference is exterior. There are no intrinsic human rights in a purely naturalistic and self-referencing model. Rights are determined by ruling classes and conform to the vision they have for the ruled classes. On this view, "rights" are arbitrary. In this context "ruling classes" refer to those ...


3

No, Hegel did not consider private property a natural right in the sense in which Locke and others did. The reason is that for Hegel these things are not self-evident truths that appear to our perceptive faculties. For Hegel, rights occur in a social framework as a judgment of the society that this attaches to a person. To put it another way, rights are for ...


3

In Judaism, there is a very interesting approach to prayer. According to one of the principles of Judaism, god does not change his mind. It is then difficult to understand how one can ask god for anything! The answer Judaism gives to this question is that when one prays to god and asks him for something, the person himself changes, and therefore god is ...


3

In this scenario, consuming plants would be incompatible with the principle of trying to avoid unnecessary suffering given our current agricultural practices. If consuming plants caused suffering, such suffering wouldn't be unnecessary, at least not to staying alive and healthy for the consumer. We know that we can live long, healthy, happy lives as vegans. ...


3

The tragedy of the commons arises out of equal and open usage of the commons which results, in brief, territorilisation of said commons to the advantage of a few, and it's spoiliation for the many. It strikes one that equal and open access which might on the face of it sounds democratic is perhaps not so democratic and one might even say anti-democratic if ...


3

(This answer elaborates a bit on R. Barzell's answer.) Charles Mills takes up this question in his book The Racial Contract. The title of Mills' book refers to a kind of inversion of classical social contract theory. Classical social contract theory uses a hypothetical, general social contract (involving "everyone," in some sense) to characterize a just ...


3

By rights, one means an entitlement a person has to do something. Abortion, on the other hand, does not concern the pregnant woman doing something. Your definition of rights is overly restrictive. That a woman ought not to be obliged to carry a pregnancy to term also falls within the traditional scope of a right: From Stanford Encyclopedia of ...


3

This may superficially seem like a question of ethics --a moral commitment against racism as opposed to the practical value of profiling --but I think that both overstates the practicality of profiling, and understates the practical value of minimizing racial biases. If the suspects --or the guitars! --were arguments, what you are talking about would be the ...


3

That depends on what the problem is with killing people: A Deontologist could argue that the zombies have no inherent duty of care, being entirely imaginary entities, and so declare Open Season without qualm. A Consequentialist could notice that killing philosophical zombies has no effect IRL, and grab a shotgun. A Virtue Ethicist could acknowledge the ...


3

Welcome, El Ectric Hobbes is not the easiest historical philosopher to interpret; and the area of your question is still much contested but I think I can provide pointers towards an account that will make some things clearer. Subjective theory of value Hobbes is widely regarded as a subjectivist about value on the basis of texts such as the following: ...


3

Given our limited knowledge of the earliest Western and Eastern philosophy, we shall probably never know who originated or first analysed the concept of property. But in the Western tradition, a provisional first place may be held by Plato. Plato Plato is clear in Republic III.416d-417a, IV.543b , and V.464c-e, 466b-c that the Guardians are not permitted ...


3

You mention Peter Singer, who approaches the topic from a utilitarian rather than a right-based standpoint. Besides Animal Liberation (2nd ed., 1995), you might try: P. Singer, The Animal Liberation Movement: its Philosophy, its Achievements and its Future. ISBN 10: 1909798622 / ISBN 13: 9781909798625 Published by Active Distribution, London, 2019. P. ...


3

Brief answer: See Stig Kanger's 1972 paper "Law and Logic" (Theoria 38, pp. 105-132). Longer answer: Logical treatment of jurisprudence is, as it happens, at an incipient stage, though the idea is not novel - since someone called Leibniz has passed through this world: We need a new logic in order to know degrees of probability, since this is necessary in ...


2

You are violating the principle of ownership Sharing and using intangible goods is not about how you acquire it, or whether the goods can be duplicated for no cost, or whether the original owner still has a copy of the goods. It is entirely not about that. All of those things are issues that have no relevance to the morality of the act. In the end, ...


2

In the United States, and many other countries with similar legal systems, a defense attorney is required to represent the interests of his/her client, regardless of whether the client is actually innocent. This is a legal requirement and a moral duty of the legal profession. To that end, one could also argue that everyone has a moral obligation to stop a ...


2

If a population were to face a situation of certain demise then there would be little scope in tightening a government's hand upon the rights of its citizenry. Yet even in the face of such circumstances it would be the responsibility of each person, as well as the government, to retain a semblance of the civility enjoyed up until that point. A glance at ...


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