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6

For Wittgenstein, I would strongly recommend the Philosophical Investigations. This is highly exemplary of the type Rorty is speaking about. For Heidegger, just about anything would fit into this category, but I would recommend you choose a brief text, because skimming Heidegger isn't going to get you anywhere. Perhaps "What is Metaphysics?" would be a ...


5

To your final question: Rorty was happy to emphasize Kuhn's influence without needing to follow Kuhn. Search "forward to people who want to out-Kuhn Kuhn" to find a passage from Neil Gross's book Richard Rorty: the Making of an American Philosopher (p. 208) on this. As to the body of your post: Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions is very nice ...


4

Option (2) is Rorty's unequivocal choice, and he pre-empts objections by declaring that truth and progress are themselves cultural artifacts without any overarching significance. There are only cultural practices undergoing metamorphoses for pragmatic/cultural reasons, and science is one among many. Interpreting texts (literary criticism) is on equal footing ...


4

The canonical figures are who they are mainly in virtue of their extensive influence on the tradition, so an alternative canon can only be of minority interest. It is a separate question whether there are any important figures in the history of philosophy which have been overlooked. I think Wittgenstein, while certainly not overlooked, has been widely ...


3

I think David Stove does qualify for twentieth century philosophy. This webpage has some of his writings freely accessible and a list of his publications. He certainly deserves a more prominent place in philosophy of science, compared to the undeserved preponderance philosophers like Popper, Kuhn or Feyerabend get. EDIT: I was just thinking about a 19th ...


3

Most of these answers seem to be pointing towards "continental" philosophers who have contributed to "analytic" discussions. Since I'm more familiar with the analytic segment, I'll point towards a philosopher or two who is analytically trained but does research on "continental" figures. First, there is Kris McDaniel, a younger philosopher at Syracuse ...


2

In general, "naturalizing" X, for philosophers, meaning looking at how the processes of X occur in nature, and developing a theory of it based on those observations rather than reasoning about it in the abstract. Quine's endorsement of "naturalized epistemology" was therefore an effort to refocus philosophical analyses of knowledge towards how knowledge is ...


2

Rorty's response might be that you are presuming some universal notion of "truth" with autonomous "meaning" that extends across societies. And since meaning is established only through social engagement and common practice (he is a pragmatist) such extension is unworkable, and any questions it generates are as a result meaningless. He is quite explicit about ...


1

Ethno-centrism appears to be a central preoccupation dominant cultures - if sometimes 'submerged'; one hears of Americas insularity; or of Chinas description of itself as the 'middle kingdom' - the kingdom occupying the centre. One supposes in todays hyper-connected world new realms of thought are opened up by being pressed up against each other and forced ...


1

A somewhat odd suggestion might be Böhme who had a major impact on many German philosophical figures, both in the counter-Enlightenment and some more canonical figures, e.g., Hegel and Heidegger. Three other figures that occur to me have been covered by Isaiah Berlin, but do deserve some mention. Hamann could be read in a way to import some elements of ...


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