5

It is referred to as Tlaxcala nowadays. However, even though the Aztecs managed to build the largest empire in Mesoamerica, they never did conquer Tlaxcala. By the time the Spanish arrived in the 16th century, Tlaxcala was an independent enclave nearly completely surrounded by the Aztec Empire. This left Tlaxcala economically isolated, leaving it without ...


3

It is an apology for the single-author history compared to history written by many specialists. It means that the specialist of Rousseau may not be versed in the history of Ancient Greece, as well as the historian of Ancient Greece may not know about Hobbes and Lenin. one of the purposes of [Russell's book] is to bring out such relations.


3

Did J.J. Rousseau really say slavery was a necessary condition to reach equality of conditions? I do not think so; see A Discourse on Political Economy (Discours sur l'économie politique, 1755) : About slavery I have nothing to say, because it is contrary to nature and no right can authorize it. And see The Social Contract (Du contrat social ou ...


2

I think Rousseau meant to say that the government can't expand and stay the same government. Of course there can be a general development towards democracy, Rousseau himself promoted democracy after all, though not for all kinds of republics (Geneva was a tiny one). As you I am not an expert in history, but I can't imagine that Rousseau made a counterfactual ...


2

Just to supplement Mauro's answer, which brings out perfectly the central conceptual point about war, there's an associated point that relates to why wars occur between states when the roots of war are not authentic to human nature. Only because of the degraded condition to which 'civilization' has reduced us, so Roussseau thinks, are states predisposed to ...


2

War is not a relation between individuals, but between States. See The Social Contract, Book I: Chapter IV : Private combats, duels, and encounters are acts that do not constitute a state of war; [...] War, then, is not a relation between man and man, but a relation between State and State, in which individuals are enemies only by accident, not as ...


2

Modern social contract theory is said to begin with Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan (not Rousseau). I will give an overview of the main points in all social contract theories, including the one in Plato's Crito (although technically, it is not a social contract theory!). Note that this is a broad and very brief overview. For a more nuanced view, I recommend the SEP ...


2

State is the institution. Chapter VI : The social pact Right away, in place of the particular individuality of each contracting party, this act of association produces a moral and collective body, composed of as many members as the assembly has voices, and which receives from this same act its unity, its common self (moi), its life, and its ...


1

Rousseau and the state of nature The Discourse on the Origins of Inequality (1775) depicts the individual in the state of nature, which Rousseau believed once existed before systematic social organisation emerged and his account of which he regards as part-historical and part-conjectural (Franklin Philip: 53). The individual is presented as: ... ...


1

Note: This answer is quite similar to Mauro's, but adds some explanation of the specific details of the quote. The context is Russell's apology for knowing less about the specifics of any one philosopher or philosophical era than a specialist, and therefore treating each philosopher with less depth and focus than the specialist would prefer. The ...


1

Cole was sympathetic towards Rousseaus political ideas which makes for a good translation This suggests then that this is a good translation as Cole has all the virtues of a good translator, a good and fluent command of both languages and an appreciation of the ideas and language at stake. What else does one require? but not a very objective analysis ...


1

One issue that commonly occurs with translations of works in philosophy is that there are often "old translations" -- which you'll readily find in print because they are outside of copyright. In general, these translations lack awareness of which terms are philosophically important. Moreover, they are often hard to follow and sometimes skip over major ...


1

To Rousseau, human beings in the First Condition are like beasts. From his On The Origin And Foundation Of The Inequality Of Mankind: While the earth was left to its natural fertility and covered with immense forests, whose trees were never mutilated by the axe, it would present on every side both sustenance and shelter for every species of animal. ...


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