6

Saussure is playing with two traditional dicotomies : the aristotelian : form/matter (their union is the substance) and the "(traditional) linguistic : form/content. See CLG, Ch.4: [ page 156 ] La langue comme pensée organisée dans la matière phonique. The langue is a "structured" whole, that organizes the thought (pensée, idées) as well as the sound (...


3

A good place to start is the two volume Histoire du Structuralisme (1991/2) by F. Dosse: it provides a context and a few chapters on Foucault in both books. In the late 70's quite a few people claimed to have always been "post-structuralists" but many of them, including Foucault, earlier were just "structuralists", a rather laudatory or at least fashionable ...


2

We can have a theory of the-properties-of-light-in-the-wavelength-range-that-Humans-call-blue, a theory of human-sensation-when-presented-with-light-in-this-range, a theory of the-emotional-effects-of-this-color-of-light-on-octopuses, and so on. All these are testable in a Popperian sense because they make predictions and you can do experiments to test ...


1

It seems to me that the epistemological "categories" of idealism and scepticism are not well apt to describe the theories of Ferdinand de Saussure : Saussure posited that linguistic form is arbitrary [...]. According to Saussure, a language is arbitrary because it is systematic, in that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Also, all languages ...


1

Idealism is certainly sceptic about the existence of an external world, but not about truth generally: idealists will construe truth as a matter of coherence of one's representations rather than correspondence to the world (a belief is true if coherent with our whole set of beliefs--this is kind of holistic).


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible