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If you have a belief about the matter (elementary particles) that is outside the domain of their existence you can be certain (or uncertain, what you wish) about your belief. If it involves statements about this matter itself (like how elementary particles behave or how many of them are in a certain region of spacetime), then your beliefs can be proven right ...


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We cannot be certain of anything. Entertain the following scenarios: The universe was created 5 minutes ago. When your brain was constructed, neurons were arranged in such a way that you have many memories about the past. You could not tell the difference between living since birth, and false memories. Information from the outside world reaches your brain ...


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Many teenagers in a high school math class will study a model of a baseball being thrown into the air, and then falling. A lot of these mathematical models of baseballs are different from reality. When creating a mathematical model, a baseball might be a perfect sphere. Real baseballs are not perfectly spherical, there are ridges and dents. Some mathematical ...


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Please bear in mind there's a difference between law of non-contradiction (LNC) and law of excluded middle (LEM). LNC essentially says any proposition and its negation cannot both be true at the same time, while LEM essentially says any proposition is either true or false and there's no middle case. And as we know both laws can be violated in non-classic ...


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The most obvious remark is that if we have no knowledge as to whether some proposition is or is not the case, then we have no knowledge at all. Might-or-might-not is a state of ignorance not a state of knowledge. Since you have not proffered your definition of "knowledge", how can the poor sceptic judge whether it is the same as theirs or not? They ...


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Famously, Descartes assumed that a claim was false if it "falls prey to even the slightest doubt". He reasoned that if he did this, than any conclusions that he reaches must be undeniably true. Very few people claim that he was incorrect in this idea. Instead, people who reject his philosophy tend to claim that his notion of 'doubt' was not strict ...


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Bertrand Russell has a famous quote according to here and here: The fundamental argument for freedom of opinion is the doubtfulness of all our belief. The fundamental cause of the trouble is that in the modern world the stupid are cocksure while the intelligent are full of doubt. So if you don't want to be a radical skeptic, there's at least some ...


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