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The best book I've read to get a deep grasp from an introductory starter level is Lewis Wolpert's "The Unnatural Nature of Science." Buy used--it is going at a real premium new the last time I looked. He just passed away January 28 of this year at age 93.


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I came up with this reasoning, made some points clear from my perspective, but it still does not disprove solipsism, rather weaken it: Accept that "my" quale is the only thing that exists. There also are other beings, which my mind makes up that they have their respective qualia. Then "I" should have some degree of control of, or access ...


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I don't think that Descartes: tried to prove that he existed from the fact that he was thinking. Rather, he tried to remove errors in his thinking by assuming a skeptical stance toward anything that he thought one might reasonably doubt. Then discovered for himself (although he likely read it beforehand) that he could not reasonably doubt his own existence,...


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Welcome, don. Thanks for a nice, reflective question. The cogito has much less importance for Descartes than is commonly supposed. Its significance is twofold: (1) it is (merely) the first truth which Descartes has come upon which (as he supposes) 'is necessarily true whenever it is put forward by me or conceived in my mind' (Med. II: Cottingham, II: 17). (2)...


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