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You should read In Praise of Idleness, an essay by Bertrand Russell which examines your question. If the ordinary wage-earner worked four hours a day, there would be enough for everybody and no unemployment -- assuming a certain very moderate amount of sensible organization. This is the gist of Russell's argument. Indeed, he argues that "individual human ...


4

(b) happens often enough. "I prefer Gore to Bush. But, I just heard Nader talk, and now I prefer Nader to Gore." If you have 51% support for Gore, 49% support for Bush, and 0% support for Nader, but some Gore supporters decide they like Nader even more than Gore, the numbers will go to e.g. 48%, 49%, 3%, and Bush will win the election, even though nobody ...


4

The first definition isn't very good. You say Ethics refer to society idea of what is right and wrong which is fine, but then you add ... and we do it because society says it is the right thing to do. Many people would disagree with this. There is some extra stuff here that is not part of the definition of ethics. Here is the OED definition (first ...


4

A good start would be Habermas' Theory of Communicative Action. It is very complex and hard to get into for a beginner and even advanced students without guidance, though. But I think every contempory theory regarding social concensus has to deal with the theoretical framework established and defended by Habermas. For an introduction, see this Wikipedia ...


3

It is not entirely clear what Epicurus meant by 'pleasure'. It does seem fairly clear, however, that 'maximisation' of pleasure does not capture his view. So if this is a utiitarian element, it needs to be clipped out of one's account of Epicurus. The headline answer is that Epicureanism is neither egoism nor utilitarianism and no closer to one than to the ...


3

In Epicurus' philosophy peace of mind is the goal of life. Pleasure and pain are the root of good and evil. In this way qualities like virtue and justice derive from these roots. It's impossible to have a pleasant life without living wisely, honourably, justly and vice versa. Epicureans mistakenly interpret this as the pursuit of sensual pleasures. For ...


3

A "zero-sum" game is one where everything that the winner or winners gain is exactly the same as what the loser or losers lose. Obviously a zero-sum game can be very unjust. If I steal $100 from your pocket, I win $100 and you lose $100, so it's a zero-sum game. If I steal $100 from your pocket by slitting open your pocket, I win $100 and you lose $100 plus ...


3

In a world like the one described by you, it's possible that the question is sort of "wrong". That technology obviously is world-changing, so probably copyright would change too. Even leaving aside the possibility of an open digital-food-machine, and the possibility of an open digital recipe, it wouldn't be that much of a problem if people got fired, because ...


3

It does not sound like a suitable finality for human subjectivity to abandon creation and give up production altogether. On the other hand, maybe alienated production under the constraint of profit (for profits' sake) is also not a suitable finality for human subjectivity. My suggestion might be to consider the ways in which our desires and expressions have ...


2

I think it depends on the definition of work. A thing may feel like work for one person, but another may be passionate about it. Everyone looks for something to give his life meaning, or looks for challenges. There are ways to accomplish this: acquire satisfactory work or volunteer somewhere or start your own projects and hobbies. So I see it basically as:...


2

Modern social contract theory is said to begin with Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan (not Rousseau). I will give an overview of the main points in all social contract theories, including the one in Plato's Crito (although technically, it is not a social contract theory!). Note that this is a broad and very brief overview. For a more nuanced view, I recommend the SEP ...


2

I think Rousseau meant to say that the government can't expand and stay the same government. Of course there can be a general development towards democracy, Rousseau himself promoted democracy after all, though not for all kinds of republics (Geneva was a tiny one). As you I am not an expert in history, but I can't imagine that Rousseau made a counterfactual ...


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Nicholas Rescher (1993), Pluralism, against the demand for consensus. is really non-trivial and, imho, worth reading.


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I say, if you get true insights from this way of evaluating our present market of ideas in light of the past, then go ahead and look at it that way. But if this scheme makes pointless or bad predictions, or fails to explain enough, or seems unnecessarily arbitrary, then drop it for something you like better.


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Consent and contract One element in a contract is consent. Burke rejected consent as a basis for political authority and obligation : The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries are commonly, and accurately, represented as the age of social contract theory: the time at which the still-popular doctrine arose that political legitimacy, political ...


1

Cole was sympathetic towards Rousseaus political ideas which makes for a good translation This suggests then that this is a good translation as Cole has all the virtues of a good translator, a good and fluent command of both languages and an appreciation of the ideas and language at stake. What else does one require? but not a very objective analysis ...


1

One issue that commonly occurs with translations of works in philosophy is that there are often "old translations" -- which you'll readily find in print because they are outside of copyright. In general, these translations lack awareness of which terms are philosophically important. Moreover, they are often hard to follow and sometimes skip over major ...


1

Some words that may describe the concept you seek: charity: if the resources are given freely to the poor noblesse oblige: formally, the belief that nobility has a responsibility to others in society, including the poor; informally, the belief that all rich people have this responsibility. social justice: if you believe people are poor due to circumstances ...


1

Off the bat, there are at least two types of equality which are obvious and considered desirable by Americans: Equality in front of the law: Ideally everyone should be treated the same way for the same crimes, regardless of ethnicity, gender, income level, etc...Consider Judged Jean Boyd in Texas, who sentenced Eric Miller, a poor 16 year old black kid, to ...


1

Two possible responses: From Marx's perspective: Yes, there is injustice in the division of labor. In fact, the modern division of labor is the main reason for alienation, which is the process by which a worker looses his humanity, and instead becomes a mere commodity like any other equipment or material used in the overall production process. In a ...


1

The simplest answer is that, yes, there is some unfairness in the division of labour. No matter what the occupation (whether it's hunting/gathering or designing software) there will be some unfairness when an individual works out that they can get away with doing less. We all probably remember the days of elementary school projects when one person in the ...


1

As commonly defined in philosophy, a social contract account is one theoretical approach to ethics in social and political philosophy. Here, ethics would mean the determination of what is right and wrong. Ethics also takes on a broader meaning which is often synonymous with moral philosophy and morality as the study of right and wrong and why we think ...


1

The social contract is the responsibilities and agreements between people, groups of people and the government. For example, America's social contract states that the government must protect people from hostile invaders and citizens must pay taxes. Ethics can be based on social contracts (Hobbes), religion (Euthyphro), happiness (John Stuart Mill), ...


1

This question ties to another debate on status of citizens journalism and journalist in the emerging new media ecology. While the advantages are many, when citizens take on first hand reporting, I think less attention is paid to the risks involved in citizens reporting. One assumption that runs through this discourse on citizens journalist is that, citizens ...


1

When I think of hunger, I think of what Jesus Christ said: "You will always have the poor among you..." He did not say that we will always have the hungry among us. So poverty as a problem is unsolvable, but what people actually need to survive is solvable. These matters of technology are designed and worked for to fulfill a need for survival. I think that ...


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I think one needs to distinguish between various forms of work. There are forms that are part of a flourishing life and are vital to it. There are also forms that are inimical to it. Such as factory work and I mean this in the broadest of ways: factory work is where the pace of work is forced and alienated from the natural rhythms of a life, that work is ...


1

Two components of just war theory come in to play when considering restrictions on liberty. Was the war declared by a legitimate authority Are the ends proportional to the means If the war is declared by a legitimate authority, then it ought to have the backing of those who wish to give up their civil liberties - if only in a representative way. If the ...


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