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50

Marx, socialism and communism Neither Marx nor Engels provided a blueprint for the socialist state. There could in their view be no such thing as a communist state since under communism, with no class-rule or management needed, there would be no state because no classes. Even the Soviet Union described and understood itself as socialist, not communist : ...


34

You approach the problem from the position that everyone knows & agrees on the safety & efficacy of the vaccine. But people don't refuse it because they wish to declare that they are selfish & uninterested in wider community wellbeing. Common reasons people give for refusing the covid vaccine, are that this RNA style is a new type of vaccine that ...


25

When something has a label on it, it will influence how we think about it, even if the thing isn't what the label says. So I think it's important to define the terms in depth. Suppose a pharmaceutical product labeled "vaccine" possesses the following characteristics (and ignoring cost): Probability of seriously harming the recipient, for example ...


19

A criticized exception to the rule that falls short of the rule makes for valid negation of criticism OK, that headline requires changing direction of the train of thought at least three times, so let me clarify: The statement "That is not a true Scotsman" is not necessarily a fallacy In order for "No True Scotsman fallacy!" to be a valid ...


17

"No True Scotsman" is one of those categories of fallacies that is rather subjective. If Person A says that X is not Y because it lacks Z, and Person B says that this is a No True Scotsman fallacy, then it comes down to whether Z is a valid requirement for Y. In the case of communism, claiming that the USSR didn't live up to Marx's ideal is a reasonable ...


13

As a devout Catholic, I agree that basing decision making on credulity and group think is a bad idea. I cannot speak for all religious people, but at least in my own religious tradition, the understanding of faith is quite different from how you've characterized it. Specifically, it is different as the Catechism says: Faith seeks understanding - faith is ...


9

The question is how much well-informed citizens need to be to exercise their democratic rights. The answer depends on theories of democracy. The duty of citizens to be well-informed can be very demanding or not demanding at all. Some theories even require moral duty not to vote. I explain these three views in the following. J.S. Mill's theory can be argued ...


7

When one person is unethical and everyone else is ethical, that person gains an advantage. But when everyone is unethical, everyone suffers. It's the classic "Prisoner's Dilemma". From an evolutionary point of view (if you accept the concept of group fitness) an ethical population as a whole could outcompete an unethical population. I don't have a ...


6

I am not terribly optimistic that the division will be overcome in any sort of principled way. After all, the analytic and continental divide is still alive and well, and to mend that one there isn't even a need to be versed in a second field. One problem is that science works. Scientists don't, therefore, have much incentive to mend anything with "...


6

John Rawls discusses this subject, albeit briefly, in A Theory of Justice. The context is the issue of public goods, for example in light of the free-rider problem. The section is #42 (pg. 237 of the 1999 edition). Another aspect of the public goods situation is that of externality. When goods are public and indivisible, their production will cause benefits ...


5

"Symbiosis (from Ancient Greek σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is close and often long-term interaction between two or more different biological species." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symbiosis Assuming these married people belong to the same species, their pair-bond is not an example of symbiosis, by definition. In order for your idea to work, you ...


5

you write: He sees a black hat on the man in front of him: His should be able to conclude that his hat is white because there is a hat of each color, so if the one in front of him is black, his must be white That is wrong; assuming the first (to answer) prisoner gave the correct answer, the second prisoner can only conclude there can't be two white ...


5

Marxism has many aspects to it; the main difference appears to be as a political movement, and as a school of thought. As a political movement, it is as political and legal theorist Roberto Unger put it: no longer a live option; as a school of thought its influence is still apparent. The collapse of the Soviet Union ... signalled the defeat of Marxism ...


5

I'd first question your use of the term "moral" in this context. Most modern concepts of "morality" entail universality. They attempt to transcend the historical and conditional. The "nation-state," democratic or not, is not, by definition, a universal state... and thus not in itself a source of "moral" obligation. I would also question your rationale, "...


5

You are asking several questions here. Firstly, what kind of questions is philosophy of science concerned with? Here are some of the most important: How does scientific knowledge advance? Is there a distinctive scientific method, and if so how does it work? Is there a clear difference between what counts as science and what does not? Is there a clear way ...


5

Philosophy makes a distinction between the identity of material objects* (and immaterial objects if those are thought to exist) and what is called "personal identity." From the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy's article Personal Identity: Personal identity deals with philosophical questions that arise about ourselves by virtue of our being ...


4

The "tolerance of intolerance paradox" is a highly misleading logical fallacy that conflates an attitude of acceptance of intolerant ideas with acceptance of harmful actions. It's basically used as an excuse and justification to rationalize being intolerant based on entirely subjective notions of "offense" and "words are violence." I tolerate Nazis and ...


4

David Sloan Wilson addresses your question in his 2002 book, Darwin's Cathedral. He is the developer of multilevel selection theory, where in addition to natural selection at the gene level, and the individual level, he makes the argument that there is also selection at the group level. He addresses the issue of whether human groups can be scientifically ...


4

So far as I know, only fictional societies have existed without some assumption of free will, e.g. Huxley's Brave New World, or Skinner's Walden II. Could a society exist that didn't take that assumption of free will? Sure. But only if reality actually conforms to that assumption, that is, if man really does not have free will. In that case, even if a ...


4

I find the accepted answer a bit unsatisfying, since it doesn't address the what seems to me to be the heart of the original question: How do you have an impact on the world without putting demands on others? There's a perfectly good answer to that question: You lead by example. This point of view seems in line with me to the existentialist insight ...


4

First of all, you interchangeably use expressions "consciousness" and "artificial intelligence" while it is an open question wheter the latter one must come with the first or not and how they are related (check out for example Searle's Chinese Room : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_room). Secondly, let me use another anology to the computer science: ...


4

Your question is essentially a variation on a debate in the autonomy literature. The question that arises there is the relationship between autonomy and free choices. The two examples most common in the literature are prostitution and burqas. The question in these instances and yours is this: To what extent is autonomy to be located in the immediate will of ...


4

How incest as a taboo is defined is dependent upon the culture you are raised in. If I remember correctly, Cleopatra was the result of 27 generations of brother-sister marriages. In some cultures marrying your first cousin is ok, in others, second cousins are ok. In some to marry an uncle is ok. In others, several generations. Every society defines it ...


4

Even if we accept your basic assumption --that responsible fatherhood in human beings dates back only as far as the dawn of human societies --that doesn't imply it can't be part of an evolutionary process. Suppose that human societies have been around 10,000 years, and that being a good father provides a strong advantage to your children. That's plenty of ...


4

The idea that it exists to strengthen the patriarchy is silly; the concept of fatherhood directly benefits the female vastly more than the male. According to evolution, it likely came about as a consequence of human's extended childhood. Because of the immense amount of resources that a human child requires, and the fact that a human woman is very limited ...


4

I would suggest that IME it functions to consolidate capitalism not just by division or distraction, but by disempowering the white / male / etc. working class; relative to the capitalist class of course. Hmmmm, porbably not. Marx and Engels saw women as the original oppressed group and marriage and monogamy as instruments of capitalism. See the SEP article ...


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