Nietzsche is a frequent user of irony and sarcasm. The most extended example that comes to mind is the first half or so of Genealogy of Morality, Treatise 2.
Reading the first section or two, you may think it strange that he starts with the position that man is in essence a calculating or value-comparing animal, since this is so different to what he says ...
Habermas is quite famous, and forceful, with the claim:
M. Jay, “The Debate over Performative Contradiction: Habermas versus the Poststructuralists” in A. Honneth et al., eds., Philosophical Interventions in the Unfinished Project of Enlightenment (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992)