6

Saussure is playing with two traditional dicotomies : the aristotelian : form/matter (their union is the substance) and the "(traditional) linguistic : form/content. See CLG, Ch.4: [ page 156 ] La langue comme pensée organisée dans la matière phonique. The langue is a "structured" whole, that organizes the thought (pensée, idées) as well as the sound (...


6

There is no "synthesis" in Hegel, it is Fichte's term later adopted by Marx and Engels. Hegel specifically discards Fichte's thesis-antithesis-synthesis triad and replaces it with his own: abstract-negative-concrete. Sublation (not synthesis) is the concretization of the abstract through a successive pair of determinate negations, another of Hegel'...


5

In a very broad sense both Wittgenstein and post-structuralists might agree that 'the meaning of the language is determined by the cultural context'. But Wittgenstein's point (which I am not sure I accept) is that it is impossible to have a logically private language in the sense of a language which no-one else can understand because it refers solely to one'...


5

Perhaps you must "unzip" a little bit your question, because it is very wide in scope. You are alluding at least at three different and very interesting issues : historical interpretation of scientific theories and controversies current philosophy of science debates historical (meta-)interpretation of the interpretation of history of science by a ...


3

A good place to start would be the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy's article Jacques Lacan as well as the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy's article Jacques Lacan (1901—1981). The SEP article has a very comprehensive bibliography listing both primary and secondary literature relating to Lacan's ideas. The IEP article has an entire section devoted to ...


3

Pancomputationalism is a term encompassing all paradigms of a computational world, which proceed from the realization that nature can successfully be explained by computable scientific models. It takes the concepts of functionalism and computationalism to its ultimate consequences, envisaging a world where all physical processes are carried out by a computer....


3

I think that it has more to do with Synchronic vs Diachronic structuralism. Synchronics look at an idea in a specific time interval while Diachronics look at the evolution of an idea. Atleast as Hegel's and Marx's use "dialectic" is concerned, the dialectical process is concerned with evolution of ideas, and hence diachronic.


3

A good place to start is the two volume Histoire du Structuralisme (1991/2) by F. Dosse: it provides a context and a few chapters on Foucault in both books. In the late 70's quite a few people claimed to have always been "post-structuralists" but many of them, including Foucault, earlier were just "structuralists", a rather laudatory or at least fashionable ...


3

As Mauro points out, you'd want to find the central works of thinkers like Ferdinand de Saussure, Roman Jakobson, Claude Levi-Strauss, and Roland Barthes. The best text around summarizing what they all have in common and the major contributions of this school would be Deleuze's "How do we Recognize Structuralism?".


3

I think that Barthes' sentence "boxing is a Jansenist sport" may be more conspicuously rendered like this: the common form of boxing (unlike the common form of wrestling) is a genuine sport. First, it is clear, within Barthes' The World of Wrestling, that by the word "wrestling" he did not mean the genuine sport, the Olympic (Greco- Roman) type of wrestling....


2

The sentence in the Wikipedia article prior to the one you cited gives a rough idea of how Foucault moves towards to structuralism. it is an examination of the evolving meaning of madness in European culture, law, politics, philosophy and medicine from the Middle Ages to the end of the eighteenth century, and a critique of historical method and the idea ...


2

A really interesting question that for now does not seem to have a good answer. Basically it's supposed to be picture from 1978 seminar by Althusser. It's in the Imec archive and has been used for the cover of the book. But there is an apparently well supported suggestion that it may have been staged (Bachir). On the picture Althusser appears to be pointing ...


2

To illustrate the difference using two writers usually held up as examples of the respective categories, Claude Lévi-Strauss (Structuralist) tries to demonstrate that the same universal structures, especially binary oppositions, underlie all human thought across different societies. Michel Foucault (Poststructuralist) acknowledges that all societies are ...


1

Assume, you first have the following colors and names available: Whatever patch of color in the world, you will have to describe it with these. Than, you change to the following scheme: Subsequently, the meaning of "yellow" will change, as the truth value of sentences containing "yellow" will change. The change is a change in negative ...


1

The cornerstone of Saussure's view is the arbitrariness of the linguistic sign, not only on the "obvious" side of the signifiant (different sounds used for the same "concept"), but also on the side of the signifié. Meaning is not univocally determined by the world's feature: different languages "divide" the world in different ...


1

The structure appears to be something like this: everybody quitting smoking => fewer deaths from cardiovascular disease => money saved in health care. Also, everybody quitting smoking => increased productivity in all industries. Money saved and increased productivity are good things, so everybody quitting smoking is a good thing. "It has been proven that a ...


1

A monistic theory of patterns can deal with facts by being many-sorted. This means that the theory has to have a proper definition of different sorts of things (i.e. types of things), but still uses the same operators to describe them. An example of this is 2nd order logic. While 1st order logic allows only for individual objects as variables, 2nd order ...


1

It seems to me that the epistemological "categories" of idealism and scepticism are not well apt to describe the theories of Ferdinand de Saussure : Saussure posited that linguistic form is arbitrary [...]. According to Saussure, a language is arbitrary because it is systematic, in that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Also, all ...


1

Idealism is certainly sceptic about the existence of an external world, but not about truth generally: idealists will construe truth as a matter of coherence of one's representations rather than correspondence to the world (a belief is true if coherent with our whole set of beliefs--this is kind of holistic).


1

In this opening paragraph Barthes is accounting for the method of this strange book. He is not going to produce a theoretical discourse which analyzes other discourses of the type “lover’s discourses.” He will not do what theoretical discourses do: find the commonalities and differences, categorize and dissect, pretend to view from the outside. Rather, he ...


1

As the question is posed, the answer is that they do not. Structural Realism, e.g. in the SEP article you've linked to, is a new position in philosophy of science from the 1980s. “Kant, Hume, Wittgenstein, Russell, and Husserl” therefore have nothing to say about it, much less about how it differs from scientific formalism. I don't think formalism and ...


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