50

We are talking about "Appeal to law" fallacy. When following the law is assumed to be the morally correct thing to do, without justification, or when breaking the law is assumed to be the morally wrong thing to do, without justification. It could also be taken as special form of appeal to authority or argumentum ad verecundiam fallacy, in which the ...


26

"Theothanatologists" - For more information see Wikipedia. The Death of God movement is sometimes technically referred to as theothanatology, deriving from the Greek theos (God) and thanatos (death). E.g. Blake refused to view the crucifixion of Jesus as a simple bodily death, and, rather, saw in this event a kenosis, a self-emptying of God.


22

I think what you are looking for is called Legal Interpretivism, which, unlike Legal Positivism (which asserts that laws are distinct from morality), asserts that laws are based on morality, and that there is no separation between law and morality, so there must be an interpretation for why such and such is legal or illegal. In which case, the statement if ...


19

The conditional/implication (→), as you said, is a function on statements/propositions (sentences that can be true or false). Consequence/entailment (⊨) is a relation between sets of statements and a statement. From the classical bivalent point of view, the distinction can be characterized as follows: Implication. (φ → ψ) is true iff (...


18

A demon is a skilled entity, used in thought experiments, that remarks some fact. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demon_(thought_experiment).


18

What you describe is view of some deists who see God as observing humanity but not directly intervening in our lives - for more information see Wikipedia.


13

The difference is that between inclusion and equality. The set of Mothers of x is included into the set of Parents of x, but not vice versa: every Mother is a Parent, but not every Parent is a Mother. In terms of Aristotelian logic, we have that "being a Parent" is predicated of every Mother. We may also say that the concept Mother is ...


12

Attributes, for Aristotle, scholastics, Descartes, and Spinoza alike, are the non-accidental qualities/properties expressed in language by predicates, as substances are expressed in it by subjects, to which they are predicated. Taken together, they make a substance what it is, hence they are essential (unlike accidental properties), constitute its essence. ...


11

An axiom is simply a primitive sentence of a language system. It's often used in two different contexts: Context 1. Sentence s is an axiom if and only if ∅ ⊢ s. Context 2. Sentence s is an axiom if and only if ∅ |= s. The first context is that of syntactical language systems (i.e. proof systems). There, the main logical ...


10

On the prevailing extensional interpretation of modality the difference between possibility and probability is the diffference between quality and quantity, possibility is the quality quantified by probability, see Probability Distributions Over Possible Worlds by Bacchus. This interpretation can be traced back to Leibniz's determinate possible worlds, but ...


10

I answer with the authority of being a native German speaker and having graduated in philosophy ;) Back-world is a bad translation here. Presumably, the translator has mistaken the term "Hinterweltler" as being a misspelling and semantically identical to the word "Hinterwäldler", which means backwoodsmen or hillbillies. The German original "Hinterwelt" ...


10

"Positive" is what Leibniz and other proponents of the ontological argument called qualities that make something "better" than it is without them (Anselm spoke of "good" as in summum bonum). In particular, Leibniz defined "perfections" ascribed to God as "simple, positive qualities in the highest degree", see ...


9

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronological_snobbery A logical argument (and usually when thus termed, considered an outright fallacy) describing the erroneous argument that the thinking, art, or science of an earlier time is inherently inferior to that of the present, simply by virtue of its temporal priority.


9

My sense is that you are referring to a form of relativism that takes the specific form of morality by convention. Or at least that the social attitude you describe can be set out in these terms. It is capable of development beyond the banalities of prevailing forms of relativism. I develop this below, just slightly, but it may be that this is not at all ...


9

These are standard abbreviations in classical scholarship. N.Q. is Seneca's Naturales quaestiones, Ep./Epp. are the very Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium you are reading (respectively, singular/plural), Vergil, Georg. is Vergil's Georgics, Cicero, De Nat. Deor. is Cicero's De Natura Deorum, etc. You can typically find the full title by googling the abbreviation,...


8

You ask a very intelligent question, and you ask it very well. The debate over 'outcome oriented ethics' and 'means oriented ethics' is not new - in fact, entire schools of philosophy exist about this within the meta-field Normative Ethics. For example: Consequentialism refers to moral theories that hold that the consequences of a particular action ...


8

This is a quotation from The Art of War 4.2. Here's the original: 故善戰者,立于不敗之地,而不失敵之敗也。是故勝兵先勝,而後求戰;敗兵先戰,而後求勝。 Here's my own translation that might help: (1) Hence a good military man puts himself in a place where he cannot lose to the enemy, because the enemy has already lost. (2) The winning warrior has the win [and knows that] before he takes on the ...


8

This question seems to be a companion to How can something non-physical exist? Some preliminary thoughts: acknowledging the existence of empirical, or even confining physical to empirical, does not presuppose empiricism. Even Parmenides and Plato acknowledged the "sensible", as they called it, even if only as "illusion" or "imitation". Later rationalists, ...


8

The basic answer has been given several times: a theory is falsifiable if there is some way it could be shown to be false, but not every falsifiable theory has been shown false. Of course we do not consider every theory to be true until it is shown false. Lots of theories are currently genuinely open questions. For example proton decay. It is not even ...


8

The reason is historical. "Physics" as science is relatively recent (it was covered by natural philosophy before), and "physicist" as its practitioner was only coined by Whewell in The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences (1836), in direct contradistinction to "physician", which by that time was already taken. "As we cannot use physician for a cultivator ...


8

Consider Descartes I will suppose therefore that not God, who is supremely good and the source of truth, but rather some malicious demon [mauvais génie] of the utmost power and cunning has employed all his energies in order to deceive me. Vs Nozick Suppose there was an experience machine that would give you any experience you desired. Super-duper ...


7

'Obtains' is used instead of 'is true' because states of affairs are not linguistic or abstract entities like sentences and propositions. The sentence "the cat is on the mat" can be true. The proposition expressed by "the cat is on the mat" can be true. But the cat's being on the mat is not the sort of thing that can be true. Instead, it can 'obtain', exist, ...


7

As a starting point, I can tell you that, generally: - the term "objective" refers to things which we deem as true/existing independent of our observations of them, and - "subjective" refers to a things which we deem as true/existing contingent on our observation of them. The cake and apples example in the other user's answer below is an example of this, ...


7

(new account, not enough rep to comment reply to Michael's follow up question) There are four apples and therefore the objectively correct answer is four. The third observer is wrong to claim there are 5 apples when there are four. Of course, it might be that there really are 5 apples and that the third person is correct and the first two wrong. Another ...


7

I advocate Mulla Sadra's definition of time. A Persian religious scholar of 17th century who was also a genius of the Islamic tradition of Peripatetic, Neo-platonic Philosophy. He introduced innovative theories of epistemology, ontology, theology, and human bodily and intellectual (spiritual) development. In short, Mulla Sadra defines time as an ...


7

As Nelson Alexander mentions, philosophy encompasses far more than just philosophy of religion, but I assume that's what you mean when comparing the two. Theology and Philosophy (of Religion) are two different disciplines, that none the less have historically had significant overlap. For a long time it was hard to distinguish the two. In India, philosophy ...


7

The term "material implication" was coined by Russell, who made a distinction between formal and material implication. Here's a quote from the Principia: [W]herever [...] one particular proposition is deduced from another, material implication is involved, though as a rule the material implication may be regarded as a particular instance of some formal ...


7

The system of morality being referred to is popular morality, and it is a current area of research in philosophy, with the following notable mentions: Popular Morality and Unpopular Philosophy K. J. Dover maintains that the ancient Greeks recognized no rights other than those conferred by the laws of one's city. This chapter argues that examples from ...


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