51 votes
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Is there a term for the belief that "if it's legal, it's moral"?

We are talking about "Appeal to law" fallacy. When following the law is assumed to be the morally correct thing to do, without justification, or when breaking the law is assumed to be the ...
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  • 561
27 votes
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Term for people who believe God once existed but then disappeared?

"Theothanatologists" - For more information see Wikipedia. The Death of God movement is sometimes technically referred to as theothanatology, deriving from the Greek theos (God) and ...
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22 votes
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Difference between implication/conditional and logical entailment?

The conditional/implication (→), as you said, is a function on statements/propositions (sentences that can be true or false). Consequence/entailment (⊨) is a relation between sets of statements ...
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22 votes

Is there a term for the belief that "if it's legal, it's moral"?

I think what you are looking for is called Legal Interpretivism, which, unlike Legal Positivism (which asserts that laws are distinct from morality), asserts that laws are based on morality, and that ...
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  • 2,349
18 votes
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What is a "demon"?

A demon is a skilled entity, used in thought experiments, that remarks some fact. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demon_(thought_experiment).
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18 votes

Term for people who believe God once existed but then disappeared?

What you describe is view of some deists who see God as observing humanity but not directly intervening in our lives - for more information see Wikipedia.
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14 votes
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In simple terms, what is the difference between logic in mathematics and philosophy?

The definitions of 'logic' and 'mathematics' are themselves subject to dispute. In particular, the word 'logic' is used in different senses. At its narrowest, it is concerned with the relationship of ...
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13 votes
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What's the right term in logic for this phenomenon?

The difference is that between inclusion and equality. The set of Mothers of x is included into the set of Parents of x, but not vice versa: every Mother is a Parent, but not every Parent is a Mother....
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12 votes
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What is an attribute, as used in Spinoza's Ethics?

Attributes, for Aristotle, scholastics, Descartes, and Spinoza alike, are the non-accidental qualities/properties expressed in language by predicates, as substances are expressed in it by subjects, to ...
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12 votes
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Are humans and other animals machines?

I like this question. It's thorny. Merriam-Webster defines machine so: a mechanically, electrically, or electronically operated device for performing a task. That is, there is an operator (the entity ...
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  • 176
11 votes

Is the dichotomy between natural and unnatural defensible?

Natural is one of those words that fit the description of what John Austin called trouser-words in his book Sense and Sensibilia. Sometimes you can only understand a word by reference to what it is ...
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10 votes

What is the difference between a probability and a possibility?

On the prevailing extensional interpretation of modality the difference between possibility and probability is the diffference between quality and quantity, possibility is the quality quantified by ...
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10 votes
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What does Nietzsche refer to with the "backworldsmen"?

I answer with the authority of being a native German speaker and having graduated in philosophy ;) Back-world is a bad translation here. Presumably, the translator has mistaken the term "...
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10 votes
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What did Gödel mean by "positive property" in his ontological argument?

"Positive" is what Leibniz and other proponents of the ontological argument called qualities that make something "better" than it is without them (Anselm spoke of "good" ...
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9 votes

Is there a term for the belief that what is popular in society defines what is moral?

My sense is that you are referring to a form of relativism that takes the specific form of morality by convention. Or at least that the social attitude you describe can be set out in these terms. It ...
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9 votes
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How can I understand references in Seneca's Moral letters to Lucilius?

These are standard abbreviations in classical scholarship. N.Q. is Seneca's Naturales quaestiones, Ep./Epp. are the very Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium you are reading (respectively, singular/plural), ...
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9 votes
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Metaphysicist or Metaphysician?

The reason is historical. "Physics" as science is relatively recent (it was covered by natural philosophy before), and "physicist" as its practitioner was only coined by Whewell in The Philosophy of ...
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8 votes
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What does Sun Tzu's *Art of War* mean by "victory"?

This is a quotation from The Art of War 4.2. Here's the original: 故善戰者,立于不敗之地,而不失敵之敗也。是故勝兵先勝,而後求戰;敗兵先戰,而後求勝。 Here's my own translation that might help: (1) Hence a good military man puts ...
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8 votes

What does "physical" mean to philosophers?

This question seems to be a companion to How can something non-physical exist? Some preliminary thoughts: acknowledging the existence of empirical, or even confining physical to empirical, does not ...
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8 votes

What is a "demon"?

Consider Descartes I will suppose therefore that not God, who is supremely good and the source of truth, but rather some malicious demon [mauvais génie] of the utmost power and cunning has employed ...
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8 votes

How does one determine the boundary of an object?

It's a pragmatic thing more than a linguistic thing. If you want to go to the store, you think about your car If your car won't drive, you think about what part of it is at fault: engine, ...
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7 votes

How is "time" defined in modern philosophy?

I advocate Mulla Sadra's definition of time. A Persian religious scholar of 17th century who was also a genius of the Islamic tradition of Peripatetic, Neo-platonic Philosophy. He introduced ...
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7 votes
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What is the difference between Philosophy and Theology?

As Nelson Alexander mentions, philosophy encompasses far more than just philosophy of religion, but I assume that's what you mean when comparing the two. Theology and Philosophy (of Religion) are ...
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7 votes
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What makes the material conditional material?

The term "material implication" was coined by Russell, who made a distinction between formal and material implication. Here's a quote from the Principia: [W]herever [...] one particular ...
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7 votes
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Is there a term for the belief that what is popular in society defines what is moral?

The system of morality being referred to is popular morality, and it is a current area of research in philosophy, with the following notable mentions: Popular Morality and Unpopular Philosophy ...
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7 votes

What is a "demon"?

A demon in these contexts refers to "a forceful or skilful performer of a specified activity." In these thought experiments, a demon performs a task exactly as intended.
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7 votes

What is the word if someone starts his argument with a conclusion?

The term is presupposition. presupposition noun 1 A thing tacitly assumed beforehand at the beginning of a line of argument or course of action. ‘both men shared certain ethical presuppositions about ...
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  • 450
6 votes
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What are the philosophical implications of Tarski's truth definition?

Tarski's truth definition is very important for philosophical semantics: Since Frege many philosophers interested in the nature of meaning saw a close connection between meaning and truth. After all, ...
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6 votes
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"pleasure" vs "happiness"

I wouldn't say there are "widely accepted (precise) definitions" for the two terms you mention. I would say there are several different well-known accounts that deal with relationship. The first one ...
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