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Here's one answer from a relatively authoritative source. Antonis Coumoundouros, a specialist in ancient philosophy, says the Republic has been Plato’s most famous and widely read dialogue since the mid-nineteenth century (see http://www.iep.utm.edu/republic/). However, lamentably, he doesn't provide any evidence in that article. EDIT: I emailed him for ...


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Per: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/δαιμόνιον the 'internal' or 'divine' sign is "the name by which Socrates calls his genius, or the spirit that dwelt within him" (noun 2.1) Alternative translation of Republic Book VI, 496c, by G.M.A. Grube, rev. C.D.C. Reeve: Finally, my own case is hardly worth mentioning — my daemonic sign — because it has ...


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Plato, Republic, 331c. The context is the initial discussion of Cephalus' conventional wisdom (see the refernces to Sophocles and Pindar). Cephalus suggest a naive view of justice, defined as "truthfulness, and returning anything that you may have received from someone else". With its typical argumentative approach, Socrates suggests a case in which ...


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According to Nickolas Pappas, Plato's Republic (Routledge, 2013), Socrates' (unconvincing) refutation of the view of the sophist Thrasymachus, that justice is "nothing other than the advantage of the stronger" (338c) runs as follows : The work of the soul is living. (353d) The virtue of the soul makes it live well. (353e) Justice is the virtue of ...


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Plato did not seem to think that the philosopher kings will come to power from the ruins of a tyranny. Rather, they will rise in a still- functioning tyranny. His idea seem to be this: Among the multitude of tyrannies that humanity is bound to suffer, there will sometimes be the happy occasion that the ruling tyrant himself will be truly enlightened - a ...


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In this part of Book II, Plato is describing the early education of the Guardians. In Waterfield's translation, this passage appears in Chapter 4, "Primary Education for the Guardians". Plato, Republic (Oxford University Press 1994) Shall we, then, casually allow our children to listen to any old stories, made up by just anyone, and to take into their ...


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Plato would prefer to censor the story completely and eliminate it from circulation because it projects a morally incorrect image of the gods. However, he recognises that the story, so firmly entrenched in traditional religion, may need to be retained. The sacrifice of a pig was standard at proceedings of the Eleusinian mysteries, which are not named ...


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One quick thought here is that there is another sense to the stratification in the Republic; it is a principle of responsibility-separation not just used to ordain life-tasks to individuals, but also to ensure the separation of duties and scope for different governmental institutions. This is basically the sense of the Platonic critique of democracy; that ...


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The objects of mathematical knowledge are, as you indicate, not Forms. And the hypothetical nature of mathematical knowledge also removes mathematics from the unhypothetical first principle, the Form of the Good, acquaintance with which yields absolute, incorrigible knowledge. But mathematics is an inescapable rung on the ladder to such knowledge. Plato ...


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It is an allusion to the Cave Allegory. The enlightened one is going into the cave to enlighten... It is also a spiritual descent because he is also going there for pagan worship to pray to the goddess for the festival, which is below the wisdom of Plato and Way below the wisdom of Jesus Christ.


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I think that the word "informer" has here its usual meaning: a spy, a person who pretends to be on your side, but secretly intends to harm you. This interpretation will account well for Socrates's reactions to Thrasymachus's accusations (emphases mine): And do you suppose that I ask these questions with any design of injuring you in the argument? ...


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Puzzle You raise your question in terms of a puzzle. Glaucon, to you, sounds incoherent in his conception of luxury. On the one hand, it is the source of the evil (wanting more than what is necessary to live a good life). On the other hand, since many suggested luxury items (sofas, tables to dine on, sauces and sweets, which Athens then are accustomed to, a ...


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I don't think we can or should set aside the demands of the ideal society, given that Socrates explicitly makes reference to the ideality of the city in several junctures where he's being pressed about the possibility of instantiating such a city. Moreover, the discussion of the just city is explicitly couched as an analogy for the discussion of the just ...


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Some reflections, starting with definitions taken from Thomas Piketty's Capital and Ideology (2019) What Is an Ideology?, page 3-on: I use “ideology” in a positive and constructive sense to refer to a set of a priori plausible ideas and discourses describing how society should be structured. An ideology has social, economic, and political dimensions. It is ...


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The Republic - a provisional account of the soul (psuche) : complex or simple One point useful to note is that provisionality hangs over the Republic. The Sun, Line and Cave, for example, are similes or analogies in place of what Plato aka Socrates would prefer, if only he were able, to specify exactly. Just the same provisionality informs the account of ...


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Plato and the rules for marriage Plato's regulations on marriage principally apply to the guardian class, the philosopher-rulers. We need to distinguish two senses of marriage in the Republic. These senses are not to be distinguished by specific terminology but by the natural sense of words in context. In the first place, the active guardians, who attain ...


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I think the OP misunderstood the guidebook. The OP said According to (12) it might seem that the distribution of prime numbers can only be a matter of knowledge, never of opinion. Obviously that is false. Is the distribution of prime numbers not fully understood and is that the reason why the quote says that one can only have an opinion? The guidebook seems ...


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Socrates versus Thrasymachus Socrates deploys four arguments against Thrasymachus : There are four main arguments that he advances against Thrasymachus, directed against four of Thrasymachus' contentions: his definition of justice as the advantage of the stronger (338a-347a), his claim that the unjust man is better and more intelligent than the just man (...


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These two underlying premises seem quite far-stretched To me, it's the attribution to Socrates of these two premises that seems a bit far-stretched. Let's examine them in order. First, it presupposes that the virtues [in this case, justice] are analogous to the crafts in all salient aspects. This seems wrong, even nonsensical. I don't see what kind of ...


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Whether or not one is using ceteris paribus (OTHER, not ALL things being equal), doesn't seem to me to be a useful question. One may employ it specifically, but a Plato is not explicitly employing it here. Is he insinuating it? I would say yes, but only because most people insinuate it most of the time anyway. If one wishes to stress that one is aware of ...


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As recommended by Mauro ALLEGRANZA, looking at some different available translations sheds light on what might be the intended meaning here. In James Adam's translation, rather than 'informer', the word 'pettifogger' is used (emphasis mine): That is because you argue like a pettifogger, Socrates. Why, to take the nearest example, do you call one who is ...


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