Vedanta refers to the Indian Philosophy largely based upon commentaries on three principal scriptures of Bhagavad gītā, Brahma Sūtrās and The Canonical Upanishads.
Vedānta is mainly Metaphysical Philosophy with Scriptural Authority based logic. The main scriptures are The Brahma Sūtrās(Nyāya Prāsthāna), The Upanishads(Sruti Prāsthana) and the Bhagavad Gītā(Smriti Prāsthana). The main inter-schools of traditional Vedāntā are six: Dvaita(Dualism), Vishishtādvaita(qualified Non-Dualism), Shuddha Advaita(Pure Non-Dualism/Monism), Kevala Advaita(Independent Non-Dualism/Monism), Dvaitādvaita(Monistic Dualism) and Achintya Bhedābheda(Subtle differentiated non-differentiaion). A new school, or rather development, has arisen in the post-Swami Vivekanandā era, commonly referred to as neo-Vedānta; which conglomerates concepts from Western Metaphysics and Epistomology with traditional Vedānta. Consonant with Vedānta is the Sāmkhya-Yogā Philosophy which largely deals with Philosophy of Mind and is also Epistomological and analytical in nature.For more details, see Vedanta For Beginners and the Wikipedia Page