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A few thoughts on your question. First, the specific concept of "moral responsibility" is foreign to Aristotle's ethics. But it's not completely foreign; instead, he's going to look at people and their actions in terms of praise and blame. He addresses voluntary action in BK III of the Nicomachean Ethics (hereafter NE). On his picture, ethical action must ...


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Ethics and morality are often used by philosophers as synonyms. Some philosophers have suggested that we use the words in slightly different ways, where “ethics” would refer to a system describing right and wrong action in particular contexts like a profession or a role (like “business ethics"); “morality” would describe rightness and wrongness in the more ...


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The Greek word for virtue is arete. It is already used by Homer and applied to the heroes figthing at Troia but also to women. Socrates in Plato's early dialogues asks experts for a definition of special virtues, e.g., he asked Laches, a general, what courage ist. Plato who was the teacher of Aristotle explicitely named the four virtues Prudence, ...


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Virtue ethics are not proposed as a solution to defining what is good. Rather, it is in contrast to, for example, (direct) utilitarian ethics where it doesn't matter what virtue you may or may not be following; all that matters is outcome. Virtue ethics spares you from considering all eventualities, and instead says: it is good to act like so, even if ...


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This is an interesting question (or cluster of related questions), because it highlights the complexity of understanding both what ethics is and how different approaches to ethics "work." First off, there aren't really "three branches of ethics". There's three main ways that some people have categorized approaches to ethics -- but it's ...


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Kant is widely regarded as as "deontology personified" (Louden 1986, p. 473.) But if we widen our attention from the Groundwork and the Critique of Practical Reason to include his "virtue theory" (Tugendlehre) we find the clear and firm elements of a virtue ethics. The Groundwork and the Critique of Practical Reason are vital elements of Kant's ethical ...


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The issues you list -- altruism, reciprocation, etc... -- are not specifically sexual, but are general ethical issues and therefore would be discussed outside of sex. Philosophers prefer general principles to specifics, so instead of studying sexual selfishness, they would study selfishness in general. Which probably makes philosophers lousy lovers :) This ...


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According to mainstream theories in philosophy of mind, the mind can be explained as a mechanism. If you subscribe to such theories (I personally do not) then as a consequence you subscribe to the claim that in principle "AI can have ethics". Most philosophers, scientists, and philosophically informed people believe that. For example Daniel Dennett who ...


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There is an article by Marcia Baron in which she rejects the view that 'consequentialism, virtue ethics, and Kantian ethics form three distinct and competing ethical theories'. While this does not imply that they are mutually reducible, it goes a long way to reconciling them. I am naturally unable to say whether this is the article to which you refer but it ...


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In general, what you're talking about probably falls best under Game Theory Ethics. This is the application of game theory to morality. (Game theory is the attempt to bring systematic analysis to bear on choice-making situations where the impact of the choices of one decision-maker or "agent" is affected or altered by the choices of the other agent or ...


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It's anyone with the capacity to use reason to decide what to do, who decides well, and then develops good habits by repeatedly doing the right thing. ("Agent" just means someone/something who is capable of doing things. It comes from the Latin word for "doing.") Such people can use reason to act in one way or another, and thereby acquire the habit of doing ...


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I would say yes to this. Issues of corporate citizenship and how companies should operate in there respective communities can be regarded as a issue of ethics in a certain way. It is interesting to note that a company is not a natural person it is a legal person. This means that it is given certain rights that a natural person would also have. So with this ...


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Short but serious answer: Can a nation print its way to prosperity? Since paper currency is a social abstraction, the relationship between the amount of paper money in circulation and the health of the economy is a very lively topic in the world today. So yes, there is much philosophy underlying our money. You know that Greenspan was a follower of Ayn Rand ...


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The obvious answer is to go with Epicurus: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-ancient/#7 . You'll get a big boost by starting from the premise that pleasure is the highest good, and then all you'll need to do is demonstrate that limiting sex to consenting adults is a practice likely to avoid pain and harm, and thus contribute to the greater total ...


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By "honours" Aristotle may mean "rewards". Because he contrasts "honours" with "punishments": It is perhaps a necessary task for those who are investigating the nature of Virtue to draw out the distinction between what is voluntary and what involuntary; and it is certainly useful for legislators, with respect to the assigning of honours and punishments. (...


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I myself have wondered why I have come across so little discussion of sex among philosophers, especially since it seems to me that it would be a very serious question for ethics and philosophy of religion (i.e. why do sexual norms vary so much from society to society? Why are some religions so hung up on trying to control sexual behavior?). If there is ...


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I'm going to suggest three things that might be contributing to the problem you're identifying. First due to the long course of history, the meaning of arete (translated as "virtue") in Aristotle is often lost in the English term virtue. The term arete refers to excellence. Second, eudaimonia as you note is not always best rendered by the English word "...


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As a starting point, a system of AI morality would have to be deontological, because for it to be something you can implement as a program, it would have to be a clear cut set of rules, as opposed to a utility measure. Utilitarian ethics, even when applied to human situations, run into the difficulty of how to practically measure the utility of each ...


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I personally like the idea that what we have perfect duties to acquire and exercise character traits such as generosity and benovolence, because it seems reasonably intuitive to say that we should never have a deceitful character nor a competitive attitude, but that honest people can still lie. Alongside the imperfect duty to e.g. give to charity, like ...


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People can ultimately only be judged by the things they actually do, not the things they think. It's completely possible for a person to believe themselves to be good and think good thoughts, but in practice carry out selfish acts regularly. It's also possible for someone to think evil thoughts regularly, but to have a moral conscience which filters them out ...


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Early Buddhism can offer an awesome perspective into this problem. Buddhism goes beyond conventional interpretations of "good" and "bad" (but without ignoring them). Instead, it classifies ways of life, actions and intentions according to its potential to perpetuate/increase or decrease insatisfaction. It seems, after careful consideration and checking, that ...


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Virtue ethics - fixing the focus Virtue ethics is an approach emphasizing the centrality of the role of character traits (virtues), the possession of which is needed for persons to be good and to live well. As a distinctive approach within normative ethics, it contrasts especially with theories emphasizing acting in accord with universal rules or duties, ...


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It is difficult to place confucianism in either Virtue Ethics or Deontology, since in his teaching there is a high emphasis on both( Analects 5.7 & 14.17 ). Although trough my study and understanding of The Analects I believe that the answer is Virtue Ethics. Also the question you have asked , does suit Zilu specifically well : Analects 15.4. The ...


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A simple definition for "ethics": "moral principles that govern a person's or group's behavior." would suggest that No, a machine with AI cannot have "true" ethics built in it. Looking further into the definition we'd have to look at "morals": "...a person's standards of behavior or beliefs concerning what is and is not acceptable for them to do." The ...


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It's asking the wrong question. Ethics is hard. It's very hard even for highly intelligent people with a generous amount of natural intelligence. And it's not something that you can "program into" a machine. Your only chance to create a truly ethical artificial intelligence is to make it intelligent enough to learn about ethics, and then to teach it. The ...


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There's two things at work here that I think help explain how Mill is not merely providing an expression of Aristotle. (You can also look at "pleasure" vs "happiness" and What is the causal connection between virtues and eudaimonea in virtue ethics? ) For one thing, it's not clear that Aristotle and Mill agree about the nature of ...


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