Vishnu Vardhan-Reddy Burla
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Did Kant come to believe that we have access to things-in-themselves after all?
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I would read Kant's ethical work. This is because Kant makes some actual positive claims about things in-themselves (noumenal realities) such as god, freedom, immorality of the soul. While he denies ...

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According to utilitarianism, are the only moral actions the ones that maximize utility? What about actions that increase utility, but not maximally?
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If u maxim utility, u aren't being immoral. This would be akin to St Agustines idea that sinning happens even when u dont do what is maximally good. So if u do action D, it is a sin since there is ...

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What is the difference between the “thing in itself” and noumena?
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Kant must define noumena as a thing that is thought but not sensed. He cannot give a positive definition of noumena without contradicting the position that we cannot know anything about noumena ...

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What did Kant mean by "objects" and how do they relate to intutions and concepts?
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For mathematical objects, the formal reality is the objective reality. By formal i mean the logical definition of the thing and by object i mean the thing referenced by its idea. Kant believed in the ...

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What is an attribute, as used in Spinoza's Ethics?
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To read a philosopher you must sometimes read the predecessor that that philosopher was responding to. For Spinoza, he was responding to for one, Descartes and his idea of substance/attribute. ...

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Moral responsibility without free will
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Kant gives an independent account of moral responsibility when he derives the categorical imperative (CI) from the concept of duty. From there he says it implies freedom only if morality entails ...

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How can Kantianism prove the existence of perfect duties?
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Your maxim is not based on the formal (universalization requirement) aspect of the will but the material (the ends obtained outside of the will). Thus u cannot get a categorical duty to lie in that ...

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Kant’s claim “there are only three kinds of proof for the existence of God”
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No body reads the dialectic part of the critique so I sus u read the analytic as well. Judgements for Kant must be given empirical content or they are empty (meaningless). This is why concepts alone ...

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Can reality exist without anything/anyone?
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You asking about mind-dependent and mind-independent reality. There are different aspect of the human mind and the reality-dependence will be based of what we are talking about. For the example of a ...

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Argument over ethics
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I have never seen a philosophical argument for the permissibility of animal torture. This goes against the traditional conception of virtues, and even Kant would say that those mean to animals are ...

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When can we have certainty in what we claim to know?
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Consider the phrase "I know that I know nothing." This would be a logical contradiction so you must be certain of something. Now that we dispelled global skepticism (the idea that we cannot ...

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Reference request: books about meta-ethics theory
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One book that is not just one ethics but actually "meta-ethics" is Christine Korsgaard's Sources of Normativity. It goes over the different types of justifications given for different moral ...

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