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I'm looking for any formal work that has been done on describing causation the way people understand it. I am not looking for logical implication, more a way to talk about "Why?" questions. Basically, does formal logic have any way to describe what it means to explain why something happened?

eg. "Why is this book open? I was reading it earlier"

I am looking for a strictly-defined operator X to describe the relationship between these two statements such that,

"I was reading it earlier." X "This book is open."

is true, and

"Macron leads France." X "This book is open"

is false.

Also, there should be wiggle-room for multiple different explanations of an event, ie., double-implication isn't going to work.

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