During the enlightenment period, people began to look political, economical, and moral aspects in a more scientific way (i.e., eliminate bias imposed by church on these understandings, use scientific reasoning to reach conclusions...) and therefore, I was wondering whether it occurred that such method of reasoning helped develop people's capacity for feeling of what is right and what is wrong and also helped in changing centuries old church laws.
Historically people were widely thought to be 'born criminal', ie defined by lineage. Science was first put to justifying that, through phrenology, and facial analysis of 'criminal types'. But then doctors are thought to have been killing more people than they saved until the 1890s when hand washing and germ theories were grudgingly accepted.
'Blank slate' theories of the mind, discredited now, helped establish the importance of nurture at least as addition to nature.
You could go down a history-of-science rabbithole, but there are just too many examples to consider. Why do you ask the question? I'd say religious and philosophical ideas have been far more important, and many of the influential scientific ideas were wrong.