I've had an idea and I'm almost certain it might not be a novel one, so I'd like some pointers to read more about it. Maybe some philosophers/writers already explored the subject and elaborated it a lot better?
The idea is that "meaning" itself is just measurement / comparing to archetypes of ideas that we have. When we say that something is a "dog", we're saying that it matches fairly closely a shared idea of dog that we have.
Every meaning ascribed to words, phrases, expressions, metaphors and so on are just more complex examples of us comparing the concept we talk about with another concept (archetype), which need not to be a perfect representation of the concept, just a general one.
What I'm interested in reading is about an exploration of these comparisons. Are they classified in different types? Are there special characteristics to these archetypes? Are all comparisons of the same nature?
I'm mostly looking for references, but if you'd like to provide some brief explanations on author's points of view, it would be very appreciated.