In his section on Force and the "inverted world" in "Phenomenology of Spirit," Hegel provides a dialectical account of Newtonian physics and gravity that I find very interesting, if characterisitcally dense.
Of course, Hegel was writing before the development of thermodynamics, Maxwell's equations, and particle physics. But I keep thinking that his keen sense of paradox would be well suited to puzzles in today's cosmology or quantum physics. Are there any philosophers who pursued a similar dialectical, or even explicitly Hegelian, account of more recent physics?
In this case, I think I'd prefer idealism to material-dialectical writings on science by Engels or other Marxists. Perhaps works by Greene, Bradley, or McTaggert? I'm not really familiar with the British idealists. Or maybe some contemporary, off-the-reservation physicist. Any suggestions welcome.