I am looking for books and papers that analyze the concept of "fact" in a philosophical way. That is, such texts might define what a fact is, talk about whether a fact is one kind of entity in and of itself, talk about how facts differ (if they do) from truths, etc. I read the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on facts, but I am looking for further references.

  • 3
    How about references at the bottom of that SEP entry, in the "bibliography"?
    – Frank
    Feb 11, 2023 at 0:08
  • I don't know that anyone has a list handy, but you might want to do some work on PhilPapers: philpapers.org/browse/facts-and-states-of-affairs
    – J D
    Feb 11, 2023 at 3:08
  • The answer may be found in the mode of pop philosophy Jul 11, 2023 at 10:01

2 Answers 2


The SEP entry on facts will be a good direct and indirect resource. There are strong connections between the concept/word "facts" and talk of states-of-affairs, and facts are the classically preeminent truthmakers.

More specific references would be the articles on various philosophers' commitments (temporary or not) to logical atomism, e.g. Russell's or Wittgenstein's.

Talk of facts is often involved in talk of truth as in the correspondence theory of truth. Oftentimes, given their metaphorical {Subject, predicate} character, facts are supposed to be related to properties (where properties are the predicates, and substance-terms are the subjects).


David Wootton's book The Invention of Science devotes a chapter to the meaning of facts. In particular, he argues against Nietzsche's claim that facts, as such, are merely a matter of interpretation and, therefore, have no real existence.

Against this claim Wootton's contention is that we live and swim in an sea of facts, invisible, yet determining of our world.


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