Kant does mention Aristotle's categories. However, Kant's interest in the categories was internal to his own system, and not an interest in reconstructing Aristotle. Kant's list of categories is quite different from Aristotle's.
Aristotle's categories are general-logical and metaphysical terms. He defines the categories as "what is signified by expressions which are in no way composite" (Categories, §4). His list consists of ten categories: substance, quantity, quality, relation, place, time, position, state, action, affection.
Kant's categories are logic-of-epistemology terms. He defines them as "conditions under which alone the manifold content of the sensuous intuitions can be united in one consciousness" (Critique of Pure Reason, Transcendental Logic, §16). His list consists of twelve categories, divided into four sets of three: (1) of quantity: unity, plurality, totality; (2) of quality: reality, negation, limitation; (3) of relation: substance- and- accident, cause- and- effect, reciprocity; (4) of modality: possibility, existence, necessity.