16 votes
Accepted

Is every feature of the universe logically necessary?

Logic is not in the business of telling the universe what to do, or even in the business of describing how the universe works. We have science for that. Logic is concerned with the relations of ...
Bumble's user avatar
  • 24.2k
7 votes
Accepted

Is steam necessarily ice?

Ice is H2O in solid state, and steam is H2O in gaseous state, so neither is H2O simpliciter and necessarily (or even actually) the other. The correct versions will be "the material of ice is ...
Conifold's user avatar
  • 42.8k
5 votes

What precisely are brute contingent facts?

According to Wikipedia, Poincare distinguished brute facts from their scientific description. The first is ontological and the second, epistemic. Now, scientific descriptions can be founded on other ...
Mozibur Ullah's user avatar
5 votes
Accepted

Is metaphysical necessity an unambiguous concept, and if so, how do we capture it?

Kripke (naming and necessity) is often held responsible for reintroducing metaphysical necessity in contemporary philosophy. You'll find some examples from ordinary language in Naming and Necessity, ...
Quentin Ruyant's user avatar
5 votes

Can everything in the universe be metaphysically necessary without determinism?

The words used here, "neccesary" and "determinism," are complicated. They have very precise meanings in several contexts, but those meanings do not always align. When answering ...
Cort Ammon's user avatar
  • 17.7k
4 votes

Can empiricists and materialists accept metaphysical modality?

Interesting question! What you are talking about seems to be addressed by the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. According the Epistemology of Modality (SEP): Kant famously argued that what is a ...
J D's user avatar
  • 25.2k
4 votes

Is an equal outcome necessary to differentiate between equity and equality?

Your question supposes that equity and equality have precise meanings, which is not true. Words mean what people take them to mean, so you might take the word equality to mean something subtly ...
Marco Ocram's user avatar
  • 18.9k
4 votes
Accepted

If a then it cannot fail to be the case that b

The difference is concerned with the scope of the 'necessarily' operator. There is a difference between "Necessarily: if A then B" and "if A then necessarily B". In the first ...
Bumble's user avatar
  • 24.2k
4 votes

Why shouldn’t I be a skeptic about the Necessitation Rule for alethic modal logics?

Modal logics that include the necessitation rule are called normal. Not all modal systems are normal. Some of the non-normal logics are S1, S2 and S3, which are consistent with the necessitation rule, ...
Bumble's user avatar
  • 24.2k
3 votes

Are there examples of necessity other than logical necessity?

Well, take the claim that nothing travels faster than light. This is clearly physically necessary in the sense of being true in any possibility, where our actual laws of physics hold. But it is not ...
sequitur's user avatar
  • 1,388
3 votes

Must an eternal object be uncaused?

Causality and time are so intertwined that they’re nearly synonymous. Time is a frame which we construct in order to capture causality. If you remove causality, you remove time, and if you remove ...
Dan Bron's user avatar
  • 143
3 votes

Would a first cause exist necessarily, so that absences are uncaused?

There are questions about whether the idea of a first cause is coherent or required. If the universe has always existed then it does not need and cannot have a first cause. Also if everything ...
Geoffrey Thomas's user avatar
  • 35.6k
3 votes

Is every feature of the universe logically necessary?

There is a saying in physics that is called the totalitarian principle (of physics), which holds that anything not expressly forbidden is compulsory.
niels nielsen's user avatar
3 votes

Is every feature of the universe logically necessary?

The opposite of your presumption is the case. NO feature of our universe is necessary. All the principles of logic we use, are discovered. There are infinite logics, different ones of which ...
Dcleve's user avatar
  • 12.3k
3 votes
Accepted

Are there limits to what can be proposed as metaphysical necessity?

If necessity is existence in all possible worlds, then if existence claims can one and all be denied, or asserted, without a priori contradiction, then anything can be said to be necessary that can be ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
3 votes

Do contingent propositions about the world rely on the consistency of mathematics?

Not all those who assert contingent propositions believe that the consequence relation is classical (in relevant logic, for example, the consequence relation is paraconsistent, and so there's no proof ...
kuro's user avatar
  • 121
3 votes

Reference request for books and papers that defend necessitarianism

Necessitarianism has more than one sense. In a general sense it means that everything that is true, or everything that happens, could not be otherwise. In the philosophies of the continental ...
Bumble's user avatar
  • 24.2k
2 votes
Accepted

A deontic premise that leads to a necessity from a permission

Your axiom eliminates the distinction between what is permissible and what is obligatory, because it states that what is not obligatory is impermissible. The distinction between obligatory and ...
E...'s user avatar
  • 6,466
2 votes

A deontic premise that leads to a necessity from a permission

I'm thinking you've made something akin to the Four Term Fallacy here. The problem is that you've used the terms 'ought to' and 'is permissible to' as though they are logical synonyms, when in fact (...
Ted Wrigley's user avatar
  • 19.3k
2 votes

Would a first cause exist necessarily, so that absences are uncaused?

God necessarily exists. I. Something cannot be the efficient cause of itself. a) If A exists, another caused it. II. A thing's continued existence is potential, for it is not actual. b) Therefore if ...
user96931's user avatar
  • 253
2 votes
Accepted

What do we mean by "if we have a proposition which is thought in conjunction with its own necessity"?

"A proposition which is thought in conjunction with its own necessity" means a proposition for which understanding the meaning of the proposition entails understanding that the proposition ...
Dayv87's user avatar
  • 469
2 votes

The 'Strongest Argument for Veganism': Speciesism, ethics and necessity

Necessity implies a goal. In ethics, a thing is never merely "necessary" — it's necessary in order or so that something be accomplished. It ISN'T necessary that you go to work. It's ...
user1110341's user avatar
2 votes

What is metaphysical contingency?

(a): the general intuition is as follows: contingent= there are worlds W1, W2 such that P holds in W1 but not in W2. possible = there is a world W1 where P holds. this follows from a notion of ...
emesupap's user avatar
  • 2,229
2 votes

What precisely are brute contingent facts?

The popular definition reads „a brute fact is a fact that cannot be explained in terms of a deeper, more ‚fundamental‘ fact.“ According to this definition „brute fact“ is an epistemic characterization,...
Jo Wehler's user avatar
  • 28.8k
2 votes
Accepted

If something is necessarily true, is it probably true?

If something is necessarily true, is it probably true? I would say yes. Start with the question’s contrapositive: If P is not probably true, then P is not necessarily true. This if-then statement ...
Mark Andrews's user avatar
  • 6,196
2 votes
Accepted

Are the truths of arithmetic logically necessary?

Are true statements of arithmetic logically necessary? Arithmetic is a logical formal system which is the formalisation of our intuitive notions about numbers and operations on numbers. This means ...
Speakpigeon's user avatar
  • 6,980
2 votes

Arguments against Necessitarianism

Asserting that our world is "necessary" is a VERY strong claim, and has a burden of justification on it. An inability to conceive of any other circumstance, is not such a justification, ...
Dcleve's user avatar
  • 12.3k
2 votes

Can everything in the universe be metaphysically necessary without determinism?

Work in a propositional-quantification modal logic and consider expressions like ∀AMA, for propositions A and modal operators M. For example, one might speak of everything being possible, or necessary,...
Kristian Berry's user avatar

Only top scored, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible