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I think a theory must take the form of a formal axiomatic system. (1) it has to be axiomatic, since not all propositions can be proved ( one has to start somewhere) (2) it has to be formal in order the deductions inside the theory to be purely logical. If one accepts whet precedes, any metaphysical theory, qua theory, has to possess these two features. ...


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Interpreted narrowly, your question seems related to the problem of (data) fishing, where someone investigates hypothesis after hypothesis on the data until getting statistical significance on one (without correcting for the number of hypotheses considered), so that in all likelihood it was just a fluke. This is a well understood problem. Interpreted more ...


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He did not. Like the rest of scholastics, he reified geometric points, which, according to Euclid's "definition" (possibly, spurious), "has no part", and hence extension. As for the immateriality of (intellective) soul, he has an independent argument for that, namely that the material is necessarily/essentially individual, and hence can not hold a universal, ...


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You might enjoy F.H.Bradley's Appearance and Reality, in which he analyses and sublates a list of everyday categories and distinctions. There is also G. S. Brown's Laws of Form, in which he presents a formal 'calculus of indications' where an 'indication' is a distinction or category-of-thought. There is also C.S Peirce, who did a great deal of work on ...


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This is closely related to the "Cosmological Argument" for the existence of God. In one form it says that everything has a cause, the chain can't go back for ever, so the primary cause of everything must be God. You are including God in the cosmos so as presented that argument isn't going to work out of the box. A way out of this might be the "Ontological ...


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Is it even possible to time travel without causally affecting the past? Yes, in only one direction: forward. Backwards time travel is impossible. The proof for this is simple: Backwards travel unrolls to forward travel. This is necessarily true in order to preserve causality. If one were to reset all things (except oneself as the time-traveler) to the ...


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I must point out that, even if one starts with a biased coin (in the sense that the probability of tossing heads is always P, tails always 1-P, but these are not necessarily equal), it is always possible to synthesize a toss for which heads and tails have equal probability. The procedure is simple: Toss the coin twice in succession; if the two tosses show ...


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The body without organs is neither an image of the potentialities of a given organization of an empirical body, nor a phase space per se; it is rather the condition of openness that subtends every phase space endowing the self-organization of virtual structure with pliability, or plasticity (thus linking it with the eternal return as the global structure of ...


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