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See Christian Wolff, Philosophia prima sive ontologia, § 884 and § 886. See also : Kant Lexikon, Rudolph Eisler The term " causality " as used in contemporary philosophy derives from Wolff through Kant. Wollf calls " causatum" the relatum of a cause ( = that to which a cause is related, as a " cause of"). Not all " causatum" is an " effect" for there ...


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Information, information that exists in the neural processes, is probably the physical quantity that correlates perfectly with consciousness. Consciousness is a very complex and dynamic entity: you’re conscious of many things that have a lot of complicated, fine details and that always change and change rapidly (in milliseconds), such as the consciousness ...


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FORMAL FALLACIES Formal and informal fallacies are both persuasive forms of incorrect reasoning. Formal fallies are easy to identify because the structure of the formal language is what linguists called surface structure. For instance, a simple formal fallacy goes as such: P1 A implies B P2 B C Therefore A. If we want to see a natural language ...


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Technically speaking, a class or category is defined by a set of criteria, not by a set of particulars. 'Catness' is not a property in its own right; it is a collection of properties that we have associated with the concept 'cat' such that any particular creature which shares those properties will be classed as a cat. That is why such concepts are called ...


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I feel that is incomplete when we have 4 choices the table is really more long for the eight cases. X Exist and presence of pain X not Exist and Presence of pain X Exist and no presence of pain X not Exist and no pro presence of pain X Exist and presence of pleasure X not Exist and Presence of pleasure X Exist and no presence of pleasure X not Exist and no ...


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This philosophy sounds to me like total nihilism founded on an irrational hatred of reality. But in any case, that the absence of good and bad--rather than just good and bad--are even included here is bizarre. Assigning a moral evaluation to the absence of something in particular, rather than to something in particular or just to nothing, seems arbitrary. ...


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sorry this is both an attempt to answer at least subjectively and a question. perhaps i am misunderstanding here, but when looking at the scenarios it appears to me that something is missing. maybe a discounting of the value of life itself. it seems to me i could make a similar grid with whether the existence of life is good, possibly because this is ...


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