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Disclaimer, some of this post may not make sense to you, as the OP has rewritten his argument numerous times, and I am not deleting any of this so, skip to the end for newest most relevant information. Descartes has made a mistake in logic which has not been caught for the past 350 years. No, he hasn't. You are falling into a fallacy of false premise, ...


10

Descartes was the modern founder of what is called foundationalism about knowledge, the idea that we must find a secure self-evident ground from which all the rest of our knowledge can be justified. Many classical philosophers (e.g. Plato, Kant, Frege, Husserl) shared this belief, and some continue to share it. The alternative, they believe, is universal ...


10

Does thinking imply existing? Descartes argues yes: it is impossible for anything to think which does not exist. Does existing imply thinking? Most people would say no. Most would say that a rock exists, and the rock does not think. Therefore it is possible for something to exist which doesn't think. As such, the basic claim doesn't go both ways. ...


8

Touch is just another form of sensory input subject to imperfect reading of the world like any other sense. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tactile_illusion The whole phantom limb phenomenon involves massive deception, not sure whether this fits in your categorization of "tact". (Phantoms in the Brain: Probing the Mysteries of the Human Mind - fascinating and ...


8

To suggest a different perspective, Whitehead writes the following: (page 8-9) The Reformation and the scientific movement were two aspects of the historical revolt which was the dominant intellectual movement of the later Renaissance. The appeal to the origins of Christianity, and Francis Bacon's appeal to efficient causes as against final causes, were two ...


7

If the simulation trilemma is correct, it is also trivial Reading through the Bostrom paper the first time, I missed his definition of "posthuman". Thankfully, the term is defined: The simulation argument works equally well for those who think that it will take hundreds of thousands of years to reach a “posthuman” stage of civilization, where humankind ...


7

Following John Cottingham, I would suggest the answer has to do with what is called the "Cartesian Circle." While Descartes is often associated with radical doubt, the reality is that his Meditations escape from doubt pretty quickly. And the key to that is God. Meditation 1 ends roughly at the idea that he could be deceived by an evil demon and everything ...


7

Many would are argue that you are right, the demon is still successful in his deception. DesCartes claims in the cogito that he has proven the existence of an "I", since for there to be deception, there has to be thinking, and for there to be thinking there has to be an "I" that does the thinking. Hence "I think, therefore I am". Several philosophers, ...


7

Descartes' Meditations (1641), III.2 : illud omne esse verum, quòd valde clare & distincte percipio. John Veitch English translation of 1901 : all that is very clearly and distinctly apprehended (conceived) is true. See also Principia Philosophiae (1644), Pars prima, XXX : omnia qua clare percepimus, vera esse.


7

Mechanist (or mechanical) philosophy, in the original sense, meant the rejection of "substantial forms", i.e. forms with causal powers, such as souls, postulated by scholastics (who drew on some vague passages from Aristotle's De Anima). For a detailed discussion of substantial forms see How can the soul be a form in Aristotle's metaphysics? From the modern ...


6

The distinction between formal and objective reality in Descartes is elucidated on Brown's web page. Formal reality refers to the reality of an object by virtue of the kind of thing it is (infinite, finite, modes/thoughts). Descartes view of formal reality is encapsulated in this online commentary: "When Descartes speaks of things as having more or less ...


6

The thing is, that for the early Wittgenstein the Cogito Ergo Sum was just not true. So the Cogito could not be true a priori for him. Like David Hume, Wittgenstein believed that the Cartesian Ego, the thinking subject, was nowhere to be found. 5.631 There is no such thing as the subject that thinks or entertains ideas. If I wrote a book called The World ...


6

From meditation 1: , sed genium aliquem malignum eundemque summe potentem et callidum omnem suam industriam in eo posuisse, ut me falleret: (http://www.gutenberg.org/files/23306/23306-h/23306-h.htm) genium malignum --> evil genius or possibly genius malignus depending on how he's doing his declining of Latin. In translation: but some evil genius ...


5

I believe you're referring to the fallacy of inferring the “sum” (or “I am”) part from the “cogito” (or “I think”) part, right? The “ergo” (or “therefore”) makes it sound like Descartes is expressing an argument which has as its premise that he thinks, and the conclusion that he exists. The potential fallacy in this representation of the Cogito statement ...


5

Yes, of course. This idea is most famously discussed in Nick Bostrom's Are You Living in a Computer Simulation? Note that "Roko's Basilisk" is doing no real work for you here – you don't need any esoteric forms of decision theory to accept Bostrom's argument.


5

As a man of science Descartes wanted to give every phenomenon a naturalistic explanation, and hence to explain animals and humans behavior using a reduction to the way machines work. Yet, as a philosopher and a religious man - and not like Hobbes, for example - he couldn't accept a reduction between man and machine. Animals, for Descartes, indeed are ...


5

Bernard Williams provides detailed analysis of ego cogito ergo sum argument in Descartes, The Project of Pure Enquiry. The oldest objection to the premise, ego cogito, which goes back to Gassendi, is that the reference to ego ("I") is circular. "Were we to move from the observation that there is thinking occurring to the attribution of this thinking to a ...


5

The charge of atheism was a "living" issue in Reanaissance and Early Modern philosophy; see at least : Natural Philosophy in the Renaissance Pietro Pomponazzi Francesco Patrizi and of course Giordano Bruno, tried for heresy by the Roman Inquisition on charges including denial of several core Catholic doctrines (including the Trinity, the divinity ...


5

See : Note on references and abbreviations: References to Descartes' works as found herein use the pagination of the Adam and Tannery volumes (AT), Oeuvres de Descartes, 11 vols. The citations give volume and page numbers only (dropping the abbreviation “AT”). Where possible, the Cottingham, Stoothoff, Murdoch, and Kenny translation, The Philosophical ...


5

Descartes believed in the theory of innate ideas, the theory that not all of our knowledge is from education and experience and at least some of our knowledge is knowledge that we are born with. Another classical example of this theory is presented by Plato in the Meno Socratic dialogue. In this dialogue, the slave boy, being young and being a slave, has no ...


5

Hegel comments negatively on this argument in Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion (vol 1. p. 227) It is frequently said that in his will man is infinite; while in his understanding, his power of know ledge, he is finite. To say this is childish; the opposite is much nearer the truth. On the same page, Hegel explains his objection to this position: In ...


5

The answer depends on the meaning of "really". The structure of Meditations is that Descartes sets out to doubt everything, no holes barred. At this point he is presumably doubting the existence of God as well. But is he "really"? God is never specifically addressed at this point. Eventually, Descartes finds himself unable to doubt cogito ...


5

If we invoke Descartes we should remember that he uses the Ontological Argument - or his own version of that protean argument. The original Ontological Argument as deployed by St Anselm (1077 or 1078 CE) also works from epistemology to metaphysics - from what we can conceive to what (necessarily) exists. Anselm's exact argument - actually, pair of ...


5

There is a Corpus Descartes that allows to search for a word in all of his writings. It seems however that there is no "violon/ist/" or closely related item. Searching for "instrument" gives a paragraph from the Meditations that might have been paraphrased: Premierement donc ie remarqueray icy qu’on ne vous croit pas, quand vous auancez si hardiment, et ...


4

f Descartes doesn't have to establish the identity of I at times t1 and t2, then what does that say about the kind of thing I is? I don't think the identity of I at times t1 and t2 is relevant to Descartes's project in the Meditations. Remember, the Cogito does not exist in a vacuum; it forms a part of a specific argument.


4

Generally speaking, "relativism" is used in ethics. Note that it is almost always used as a perjorative term, applied to others; I think you'll have a hard time finding anyone claiming to be a relativist (in a strong sense) as it is a self-defeating proposition. Descartes's Cogito does satisfactorily prove one's own existence-- but it does nothing to prove ...


4

1) I think. 2) (hidden premise) "I think" explicitly states there is an "I" doing the thinking; indeed, the very concept of thinking itself seems to require an existing thinker therefore, 3) I am/exist. So either way, it's a trivial, forgone conclusion because it was implied in the very first premise. The real debate lies with whether thinking requires ...


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