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Questions tagged [scientific-method]

The Scientific Method is meant to answer questions based on observation and experimentation.

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What sorts of beliefs can be justified non-scientifically?

Can I be justified in believing in a proposition X through a justification that doesn't meet the standards of the scientific method? What sorts of beliefs would be justifiable in this way (non-...
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What were the reactions to Hume's problem of induction from scientists practicing in the field?

I'm well aware of all the discussion in the field of philosophy of science spurred by Hume's formulation of the problem of induction: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/induction-problem/ My question ...
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Are there versions of theism or supernaturalism that offer testable predictions?

Theism and supernaturalism often draw criticism for their perceived lack of a practical framework capable of generating testable predictions. In contrast, physical theories like general relativity and ...
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Are there cases where psychology has offered successful scientific explanations for phenomena that neuroscience hasn't?

Firstly, is there a distinction between a psychological explanation and a neuroscientific one for the same phenomenon? Imagine if I posed a question to the entire field of psychology, seeking the best ...
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How small can we measure space? [closed]

I got this question after looking into transcendental numbers and I noticed how there are some distinctions that should be made from numbers and reality especially in measurement of length for example ...
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Is entropy physical or idealistic?

I came across the question after watching a video (Heat Death) regarding the heat death of the universe and my question serves as such: I understand this universe is constantly going from a state of ...
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Is atheism religion with all attributes? [closed]

To people who are believers, that science proved that God doesn’t exists, I want to remind that science tell that consciousness doesn’t exist too, however obviously consciousness exists. I guess ...
Dmytro Brazhnyk's user avatar
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What Would Be the state of philosophy of Science if There were no patterns in nature

Scientific observations so far have given us similarities and patterns almost in every field, Be it physics or chemistry, The second step of scientific method is to propose a hypothesis based on all ...
Dheeraj Gujrathi's user avatar
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Is the Skeptic's Prayer a valid scientific experiment?

The "Skeptic's Prayer" is introduced on page 411 of Handbook of Catholic Apologetics: Reasoned Answers to Questions of Faith, by Peter Kreeft & Fr. Ronald Tacelli. The Skeptic's Prayer ...
Mark's user avatar
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Is there an objective in science that only has one method to accomplish it? [closed]

I sometimes look at various scientific processes and there always seems that most of the objectives we humans look for; have more than one means to achieve it. Heating something, cooling something off,...
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Is science fundamentally based on the binary testing of hypotheses? (according to the scientific method)

I'm intrigued by the conventional portrayal of the scientific method involving binary testing of hypotheses: accepted or rejected. Is this binary framework an inherent part of scientific inquiry, or ...
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Is it "unscientific" to be sceptical without offering alternative explanations?

Alice has made some anecdotal observations. Through a process of elimination, she proposes a hypothesis to explain the phenomenon, as well as an experiment to validate (or otherwise) her hypothesis. ...
Xophmeister's user avatar
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What constitutes evidence in philosophy?

I have noticed an apparent confusion when posing and answering questions as to what constitutes evidence in philosophy. Especially in scientifically-related areas, I often cite scientific evidence ...
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Is Christianity testable?

In a debate between John Lennox and Peter Atkins on the topic "Can science explain everything?", at minute 44:47 John Lennox claims: Lennox: "And the major reason why I believe that ...
Mark's user avatar
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Is scientific method entirely based on statistics (statistical inference)?

If I am correct the scientific method is an application of induction to science. Is the scientific method entirely based on statistics (statistical inference)? (I guess so, because it makes use of ...
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Does falsificationism claim that all reasoning should be scientific?

Does falsificationism claim that all reasoning should be scientific? I don't think much of philosophy is falsifiable. Does that mean we should abandon it? Should we believe that 'love' doesn't exist, ...
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Can Kuhn's theory outlined in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions be applied to sociology? If not, what are the implications of this for sociology

Can Kuhn's theory outlined in 'The Structure of Scientific Revolutions' be applied to sociology? If not, what are the implications of this for sociology?
Miriam Hutch's user avatar
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What criteria determines if a proposition is mathematical or empirical?

It seems that there is a distinction between mathematical vs empirical statements. For example, consider the proposition “All even numbers greater than two are a sum of two prime numbers.” This ...
Agnishom Chattopadhyay's user avatar
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2 answers
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Causation in physics

Electromagnetic radiation phenomena exhibit a temporal asymmetry: we observe radiation coherently diverging from a radiating source, such the light emitted by a star, but we do not observe radiation ...
quanity's user avatar
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My scales has been accurate for the past year. I weigh something today. Should I assume that the measurement is accurate? If so, why?

My scales has been accurate for the past year. I weigh something today using my scales and it says that it weighs 1kg. Should I assume that the measurement is accurate? If so, why? Here is the ...
A-Level Student's user avatar
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13 answers
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Does Intelligent Design fulfill the necessary criteria to be recognized as a scientific theory?

I am seeking a comprehensive and rigorous analysis of the concept of Intelligent Design (ID) in order to determine whether it meets the essential requirements to be considered a scientific theory. I ...
Mark's user avatar
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How is scientific realism not an example of the fallacy of the converse?

Firstly, to be clear, I'm not trying to say that science is all nonsense or not useful or anything of the sort, since that's obviously not the case. If nothing else, it's incredibly useful for making ...
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A Theory That Explains Everything Explains Nothing

The title of the question - A Theory That Explains Everything Explains Nothing - is said to be a quotation attributed to philosopher of science Karl Popper, but there's no consensus on whether he ...
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Is the implication that making consistently bad decisions must be intentional a logical fallacy?

This is the argument: If someone makes consistently bad decisions, then it must be intentional, because if you were to make decisions at random, some of them would be good. At first, I found this ...
TheProseMix's user avatar
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Loops in logic and reasoning

While studying science I have come across many times loops in logic.for example in survival of the fittest who is fit~who survives and who survives~who is fit. My question is how to deal with these ...
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Is there a way to tell if something is science versus pseudoscience?

Is there a litmus test to know whether something is science or pseudoscience? There are many things which is quite ambiguous like ayurveda, homeopathy, psychology, biology, etc...
quanity's user avatar
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speculative deductive reasoning

Is hypothetico-deductive reasoning https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypothetico-deductive_model and speculative deductive reasoning same ? (speculative deductive reasoning- WE arrive at the explanans ...
quanity's user avatar
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When do we need an alternative explanation for statistically unlikely events?

When do we need an alternative explanation for statistically unlikely events? I ask because I am interested in miracles: is an extremely unlikely event enough to warrant the claim that something is ...
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1 vote
3 answers
183 views

Is finding data to fit a hypothesis unscientific? [closed]

It seems to me that many people find observations/data in order to fit the hypothesis or to prove the conclusion of their arguments. In one example, one might regard taking a set of lab data and going ...
quanity's user avatar
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2 votes
6 answers
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Is there a biological description of "chakras" or is the concept of "chakras" mere pseudoscience?

It is widely claimed that we have many chakras(7 major chakras) situated at different locations along the spinal cord. Each of the chakras is said to be associated with certain energy channels, the ...
Shubham Kumar's user avatar
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Is the observer (a person) embedded in the physical model?

During my studies of physics, I noticed that the discussion of a physical theory includes the discussion of the interaction between the observer (the person who makes the experiments) and the observed ...
Doriano Brogioli's user avatar
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Does Foucault's "power-knowledge" contradict the scientific method?

I am trying to understand Foucault’s power-knowledge concept. It seems that Foucault viewed knowledge not as an understanding of an objective reality but a way to exert power? (1) It seems that one ...
Andy's user avatar
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Science, where is the difference between law and principle?

Theories contain laws, definitions, explain and predict aspects of nature. A law in itself does not explain, but only reflects cause-effect relationships of empirical data (usually in the form of a ...
iwab's user avatar
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How philosophers reason about closeness of one theory to the other theory (approximation, learnability, discovery of theory)?

Some theory is tuple of set of axioms (including ones that are statements about data), set of inference rules and set of already deduced theorems (statements) in it. Theory can be discovered by human ...
TomR's user avatar
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Is there a proof that we can't prove a physical theory?

I am thinking of physical theories (e.g. Newtonian Mechanics) as axiomatic systems. We have a list of axioms and from there we can derive theorems, make predictions etc. If the prediction don't agree ...
Anton's user avatar
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How should Feyerabend's "Anything goes" be interpreted?

Paul Feyerabend, in his response to supposed methodologies used in science (falsification, research programs, normal science and paradigm revolutions, etc.) in general and of Imre Lakatos' research ...
Deschele Schilder's user avatar
2 votes
5 answers
352 views

How does science treat supernatural claims?

The following claim X, Something had a round trip from the Earth to the Mars within 1 second might be treated by science as a supernatural claim because it violates the natural law (i.e. speed limit ...
Sazzad Hissain Khan's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
270 views

Inhowfar is scientific inquiry modeled on the interrogation of witches?

(Carolyn) Merchant sees proof in the link between persecution of witches and development of modern science in the work of Francis Bacon, one of the reputed father of the new scientific method, showing ...
mart's user avatar
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2 answers
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What is the name of the idea that knowledge is dependent on past experience?

What would you call the idea that theories and knowledge more generally is merely the product of our past interactions with their associated elements? For example, if I were to let go of a ball, one ...
James's user avatar
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how can one distinguish between disorder and the supernatural?

Many strange things happen to us when we are asleep. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sleep_paralysis https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Out-of-body_experience https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypnic_jerk ...
Achmed's user avatar
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Does Bayesian epistemology solve Hume’s problem of induction?

Or, does it just sidestep it? Or, is it just completely unrelated to it? I’m having trouble seeing what the connection might be. It seems to me that Bayesians solve it by saying, take: Your prior ...
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A question about the Ludwing Boltzmann idea of a scientific theory expressed in the book "On the significance of theories(1890)"

I don't understand a passage in which the great physicist Ludwig Boltzmann , talking about his epistemological point of view, says I am of the opinion that the task of a theory consists in ...
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3 answers
102 views

Is it possible to have a scientific review of a method if the author doesn't have direct experience of it?

It seems like it is possible to conduct scientific research without actually getting close to the sample/specimen. However, what if the "sample" of the research is a method? For example, ...
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References on philosophical aspects of experimental design

I am an engineer working in molecular neuroscience field, hence getting exposure in both solving practical problems (how to image fish brain) and molecular bio questions (do neurons X connect to ...
aaaaa says reinstate Monica's user avatar
9 votes
4 answers
427 views

Is faith required to believe any axiomatic assumption the scientific method is built upon?

It's my understanding that the scientific method builds upon certain axiomatic assumptions, such as uniformitarianism and the principle of induction. Is faith required to believe these axiomatic ...
user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
274 views

To what extent does a hypothesis have to be testable to be regarded as scientific?

In the vein of verificationism and related to problems of falsifiability as per Karl Popper, I ask the following: Let's say hypothesis X is proposed in order to account for a certain set of observable ...
user avatar
2 votes
4 answers
688 views

Why are theories of Greek philosophers so ineffectual?

The philosophy of science is to explain many natural phenomena with simple and least number of axioms(=hypothesis). As Albert Einstein writes in his book, The Evolution of Physics at page number 56: ...
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2 votes
0 answers
106 views

What's the role of logic in logical positivism?

I'm reading up on a bit of the ideas of logical positivism. It seems that the main components were the distinction of synthetic and analytic statements, and the verification principle. Without giving ...
Mark's user avatar
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-1 votes
2 answers
485 views

Should scientist be free to research anything they want? [closed]

Should scientists be free to research whatever they want, assuming it does not harm/hurt anyone or animals.
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3 answers
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A concept which "shows" why are we limited by speed of light?

These are my thoughts about the above: So, lets say at a given time t, I am in a room, and it has a state, which describes all the info about that state. Assume for simplicity that the room and its ...
Aditya Agarwal's user avatar